- Note - Citation Marshall Papers with box number and folder refers to the George C. Marshall Papers, George C. Marshall Library, Lexington Virginia.
Marshall Plan Information
The Marshall Plan Speech
Drafting the Marshall Plan Speech
European Response to the Marshall Plan Speech
The September 22, 1947 Conference Report of the Committee of European Economic Co-Operation, a reply to "Mr. Marshall in response to your speech at Harvard on the 5th June." Also available at U.S. AID.
Studies Prior to Implementation of the Marshall Plan
- European Recovery and American Aid - The "Harriman Committee" report by the President's Committee on Foreign Aid. The committee "was asked to determine the limits within which the United States could safely and wisely extend aid to Western Europe." Republican Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg (Chairman Senate Foreign Relations Committee) stated that the Harriman Committee's "ultimate report is one of the most comprehensive ever made to a public problem.”
Messages, Reports, Speeches, and Statements in Support of the Passage of the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 (The Marshall Plan)
- Special Message to the Congress on the Marshall Plan - Message to Congress by President Harry S. Truman; delivered to Congress, December 19, 1947. (Truman Library)
- "I recommend this program of the United States support for European recovery to the Congress in full confidence of its wisdom and necessity as a major step in our nation's quest for a just and lasting peace."
- Economic Recovery Program, Report of the Committee on Foreign Relations, February 26, 1948, (80th Congress).
- "The committee believes that the program proposed is a sound one, that it will impose no dangerous strain upon the economy of the United States, and that it will be adequate to provide the margin for success in an effort which must be essentially and primarily European."
- The Battle for World Peace and Stability - Republican Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg, Chairman U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, March 1, 1948 speech recommending passage of the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948. In the speech he states, "In the name of peace, stability, and freedom it deserves prompt passage." (Congressional Record transcript)
- Statement of the Secretary of State before the Joint Session of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, November 10, 1947. Reading copy, Dept. of State Press Release, transcription (Marshall Papers, VIII, Secretary of State, Speeches and Statements, Box 157, Folder 65)
- "The President will lay before the Congress the program
of his administration for aid to Europe. My duty as Secretary of State is to present the reasons for this program; the reasons why I profoundly believe that the vital interest of the United States is directly involved."
- Statement by Herbert Hoover
to Speaker Joseph W. Martin, on March 24, 1948.
- "I realize that many approach this gigantic experiment with great apprehension and a realization of the sacrifices it will mean to our people. However, if it should produce economic, political and self-defense unity in Western Europe, and thus a major dam against Russian aggression, it would stem the tide now running so strongly against civilization and peace. The plan, if well devised and under a capable Administrator, stands a good chance of success. I believe it is worth taking the chance." (Compare with January 18, 1948 letter in opposition to Senator Vandenberg.)
Letters and Statements in Opposition to the Passage of the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 (The Marshall Plan)
- Letter from Herbert Hoover to Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, January 18, 1948
- "Whether the American Economy can stand a burden of 9 billions of relief in this 15 months must arouse great anxiety."
- U.S. William E. Jenner, Indiana, Republican, February 3, 1948 (Congressional Record, 80th Congress, Second Session, Vol 94 Part 1, January 6, 1948 to February 19, 1948, pp 963-966)
- "I would resolutely oppose the doctrine of the welfare state both at home and abroad and would therefore extend loans or grants only on terms and under conditions that make the solvency of the borrower certain and the repayment of a fair and equitable consideration to the United States an equal
The "Foreign Assistance Act of 1948"
How the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 Worked
- "The Economic Cooperation Act of 1948" - Extensively footnoted 48-page 1948 California Law Review article that examines "the broad outlines of the Act and probable questions of interpretation which have arisen or will arise."
- "The Marshall Plan and How it Works" - The article, filed in the Marshall Research Library Pamphlet Collection, analyzes the Act's administrative procedures and the responsibilities of staff. The original version has been revised with footnotes and photographs.
How the Economic Cooperation Administration Administered the Act
- "The Economic Cooperation Administration" (1948) - Organization and Activities (United States Government Manual -1948, 68-72)
- ECA Organization Chart (1950-1951) - (United States Government Organization Manual-1950-1951, 511)
- "The Economic Cooperation Administration" (1950-1951)- (United States Government Organization Manual-1950-1951, 299-303). Sections on Functions, Public Advisory Board, and U.S. Special Representative in Europe. Note changes to and additions to staff since 1948.
- ECA Organization Chart (1951-1952) - (United States Government Organization Manual-1951-1952, 565). Note changes since 1951 including the addition of the Assistant for International Security Affairs who reported directly to the Administrator.
- "The Economic Cooperation Administration" (1951-1952) - (United States Government Organization Manual-1951-1952, 323-326). NOTE: On October 10, 1951 the Mutual Security Act of 1951 was adopted. The new legislation abolished the ECA and established in its place the Mutual Security Agency.
- Mutual Security Agency Organization Chart - (United States Government Organization Manual-1952-1953, 592).
- "The Mutual Security Agency" (1952-1953) - (United States Government Organization Manual-1952-1953, 437-439). The Mutual Security Agency had "primary responsibility for the development and administration of defense support and economic assistance." In Europe the main emphasis was on "working with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization." (See Creation and Authority, p 438)
History of the Marshall Plan
Background of the Marshall Plan
Introduction and Chronology of the Marshall Plan from June 5 to November 5, 1947 - Thorsten V. Kalijarvi. (U.S. Library of Congress Legislative Reference Service) November 6, 1947. Chronology with excellent coverage of the committees established by President Truman and House of Representatives to analyze the initial report of the Committee of European Economic Co-operation and study the impact on the U.S. economy of aid to Western Europe.
Interviews with and Documents and Memoranda from State Department Officials
- Individuals Whose Work Related to the Marshall Plan and the Economic Coordination Administration (ECA)
- Richard M. Bissell Jr. - Secretary of the President's Committee on Foreign Aid (Harriman Committee), 1947-48; assistant administrator for program, ECA, 1948-51; and acting administrator, September-December 1951.
- Lucius D. Clay February 25, 1953 -
Military Governor of Germany 1947-1949 (George C. Marshall Research Library, Harry B. Price Papers, Box 3 Folder 34)
- William L. Clayton -
Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs;
his May 1947 memorandum The European Crisis was a source for the Secretary Marshall's speech at Harvard.
- Lincoln Gordon - Consultant in the U.S. Department of State working on the Marshall Plan, 1947, and with the ECA, 1948; director of the Program Division, Office of ECA special representative in Europe, 1949-50.
- W. Averell Harriman - U.S. representative in Europe under the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, with rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, 1948-50.
- Paul G. Hoffman - Administrator, Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA), 1948-50.
- Jacob J. Kaplan - Head of the economic section on Southern Europe and contributor to the beginnings of the Marshall Plan.
Marshall Plan Funding Statistics
- The Economic Cooperation Administration, 1948-1952 - The Economic Cooperation Administration, an agency of the United States Government tasked to administer the European recovery program, was created by the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, approved April 3, 1948 as Public Law 472, 80th Congress, 2d session.
- Funding Amounts and Examples - Examples of Marshall Plan Aid
- Marshall Plan Payments in Millions to European Economic Cooperation Countries from April 3, 1948 to June 30, 1952 (Color chart)
- Mutual Security Agency Monthly Report - Data from April 3, 1948, the date of enactment of the Economic Cooperation Act (The Marshall Plan), to June 30, 1952
Relevance of the Marshall Plan Today
INTERVIEWS WITH GENERAL GEORGE C. MARSHALL
ESSAYS ABOUT MARSHALL
Transcripts of the following Congressional Testimonies are available at the Marshall Library and online at the Marshall Foundation Digital Library.
- Table of Contents
- March 3, 1947 - Department of State Appropriations - House
- March 4, 1947 - Peace Treaties - Senate
- May 16, 1947 - US Information and Educational Exchange Act - House
- May 28, 1947 - Saint Lawrence Seaway - Senate
- June 03, 1947 - Military Missions - House
- June 10, 1947 - Budget Reductions - Senate
- June 10, 1947 - Ship Sale Act Amendment - House
- June 23, 1947 - Inter-America Military Cooperation - House
- July 2, 1947 - Information and Education Exchange Act - Senate
- July 7, 1947 - Trusteeship Pacific Island - Senate
- July 16, 1947 - Admitting Displaced Persons into the US - House (Marshall Asks for Aid for Displaced Persons - related Quicktime movie)
- November 10, 1947 - Interim Aid for Europe - Senate (Marshall requests Interim Aid for Europe - related Quicktime movie)
- November 10, 1947 - Emergency Foreign Aid - House
- January 8, 1948 - European Recovery Program - Senate (Marshall Testimony for the Congress - related Quicktime movie)
- January 12, 1948 - Postwar Recovery - House
- January 26, 1948 - Department of State Appropriations Fiscal Year 1949 - House
- February 20, 1948 - Postwar Recovery - House
- February 20, 1948 - Aid to China - House
- March 3, 1948 - Postwar Recovery - House
- March 17, 1948 - UMT - Senate
- March 23, 1948 - State Department Appropriations Fiscal Year 1949 - Senate
- May 5, 1948 - United Nations relations with United States
- May 6, 1948 - Trade Agreements Program - House
- June 11, 1948 - ECA appropriation - Senate
- August 1, 1949 - Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949 - House
- October 21, 1949 - Unified National Defense Program
- June 7, 1950 - Amendment of Mutual Assistance Act of 1949 - House
- June 7, 1950 - Amendment of Mutual Assistance Act of 1949 - Senate