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Draft Instructions for Executive Headquarters1
[March 9, 1946] [Chungking, China]
Basis for entry of field teams into Manchuria
1. The teams should accompany government troops, keeping clear of places still under Russian occupation
2. They should proceed to points of conflict or close contact between government and Communist troops and bring about a cessation of fighting and the necessary readjustments to avoid future trouble
3. The government troops are authorized to occupy any places necessary to the reestablishment of the sovereignty of China and are to exclusively occupy a strip 30 kilometers wide either side of the two railroads mention in the Sino-Soviet treaty.2
4. The Communist troops will evacuate any places to be occupied by the government troops for the reestablishment of sovereignty, communities, coal mines, utilities, etc.
5. The Communist troops will not be permitted to move in and occupy places evacuated by Russian troops.3
Document Copy Text Source: Records of the Department of State (RG 59), Lot Files, Marshall Mission, War Department, Originals, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland.
Document Format: Handwritten draft.
1. This document—handwritten by Marshall, presumably on the evening of March 9 when he met with Chiang Kai-shek at the latter’s country estate outside Chungking—was approved in principle by the Generalissimo. The next day, according to a memorandum by Marshall, Chiang said that he was “loath to have any representative from Executive Headquarters in Manchuria for the reason that he assumed Communist desire for such representation was based on the idea that the Russians would demand and secure equal representation along with American officers,” and the Russians would make every effort to favor the Communists. (Foreign Relations, 1946, 9: 528-29.)
2. This treaty had been signed in Moscow on August 14, 1945; see China White Paper, pp. 585-87. One of the treaty’s numerous accompanying agreements concerned the creation of the joint Sino-Soviet “Chinese Changchun Railway” by combining the Chinese Eastern and the South Manchurian railways. Ibid., p. 593.
3. When he returned to the U.S. Embassy on March 10, Marshall had a triple-spaced modified version typed, which was his usual way of preparing a document for further revisions. The chief differences between his handwritten version and the one he gave to Chou En-lai and Chang Chih-chung were: (1) the addition of a new paragraph 1 asserting that “the mission of the teams will pertain solely to military matters”; (2) the addition of “they should visit Communist commanders and headquarters” to paragraph 2 (renumbered to be paragraph 3); and combining paragraphs 4 and 5 into a new paragraph 5. The draft used for consideration by the Military Sub-Committee is in Foreign Relations, 1946, 9: 543.
Recommended Citation: ThePapers of George Catlett Marshall, ed.Larry I. Bland and Sharon Ritenour Stevens(Lexington, Va.: The George C. Marshall Foundation, 1981- ). Electronic version based on The Papers of George Catlett Marshall, vol. 5, “The Finest Soldier,” January 1, 1945-January 7, 1947 (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), p. 497.