5-422 Draft Memorandum, April 28, 1946

Publisher: The Johns Hopkins University Press
Date: April 28, 1946

Subject: Postwar, China

Draft Memorandum

[April 28, 1946] [Chungking, China]

We, the Committee of Three, have reached the following agreement regarding the Manchurian situation, with the approval of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and Chairman Mao Tse-tung:

a. The terms of the Cease Fire agreement of 10 January 1946 apply to Manchuria except as specifically modified hereinafter.

b. Orders will immediately be issued by the National Government and the headquarters of the Communist forces to their military commanders in Manchuria to bring to an end all fighting and firing within twenty-four hours of the signing of this agreement.

c. The troops now in hostile contact will withdraw each 30 li1 in rear of their positions at the time of receipt of these instructions.

d. All troop movements will cease except:

(1) As provided in c above, and

(2) As are involved in the sea movement of the 60th and 93rd Armies, or

(3) Are agreed upon by the Committee of Three for the purpose of facilitating supply, shelter or control.

e. The railways included in the Sino-Soviet treaty will immediately resume operation under the present direction.

f. A commission consisting of the following individuals will proceed at once to Manchuria:2

Chang Kia-ngau3 Chairman

General Chou En-lai

Mo Te-hui4

This commission will investigate the situation and conditions in Manchuria and will submit recommendations to the National Government regarding the following matters:

(1) Redisposition of the military forces.

(2) Restoration of communications.

(3) Organization of the present political and economic councils and the political organization and administration of provincial governments and cities.

In its recommendations the commission will consider interim measures to reestablish peace and an early return to normal conditions, as well as measures for a permanent establishment of domestic affairs. It is authorized, in its discretion, to submit its recommendations piecemeal while reaching an agreement on all matters concerned.5

Document Copy Text Source: Records of the Department of State (RG 59), Lot Files, Marshall Mission, Military Affairs, Agreements, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland.

Document Format: Typed draft.

1. A li is one-half kilometer or 0.31 miles; thus thirty li was just under ten miles.

2. Marshall had held meetings on April 25, 26, and 28, with two leaders of the Democratic League—Carsun Chang and Lo Lung-chi—and he incorporated the League’s proposal into his memorandum. (On the Democratic League, see editorial note #5-304, Papers of George Catlett Marshall [5: 396-99].)

3. A banker and former minister of railways (1935-37) and communications (1937-43), Chang Kia-ngau was Carsun Chang’s brother. Between late 1945 and the end of April 1946, he was head of the government’s Northeast Economic Commission; he conducted negotiations with the Soviet Union regarding the joint management of Manchuria’s industrial economy. He believed that Marshall’s January 10 truce and the subsequent arrival of truce teams had served to legitimize the Communist forces in Manchuria and to encourage Soviet actions favorable to the Chinese Communists. (Last Chance in Manchuria: The Diary of Chang Kia-ngau, ed. Donald G. Gillin and Ramon H. Myers [Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1989], pp. 27-29.)

4. Mo, a former president of the Chinese Eastern Railway, had been a member of the presidium of the People’s Political Council since 1942.

5. Marshall wrote on the file copy of this draft: “Submitted to Gimo but not accepted. Par. f submitted as proposal of Democratic League, which had been checked by them with Chou En-lai. G. C. M.”

Recommended Citation: ThePapers of George Catlett Marshall, ed.Larry I. Bland and Sharon Ritenour Stevens(Lexington, Va.: The George C. Marshall Foundation, 1981- ). Electronic version based on The Papers of George Catlett Marshall, vol. 5, “The Finest Soldier,” January 1, 1945-January 7, 1947 (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), pp. 533-534.

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