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Index – Monograph Collection

   
Publisher: George C Marshall Foundation



Acheson, Dean G., 5, 16, 18, 19, 32, 36–37,
Communism: growth in Europe of, 4–5; oppo-
114
sition to as ERP theme, 20; strength in
Adenauer, Konrad, 108, 109–10, 132
West Europe of, 50–55
Albrecht, Karl, 110
Coppock, John O., 70, 71
Alderfer, Harold, 73, 106
Czechoslovakian Communist coup, 20–21,
Alliance for Progress, 128
113–14
Aquila (film), 28–29
Austria, 4, 45, 46
Dayton, Leon, 80, 95
Denmark, 51
Ball, George W., 4
Dirksen, Everett, 18
Bank for International Settlements, 150n35
Dorr, Russell, 86–89, 92, 93, 94, 95
Barzini, Luigi, 83, 85
Drake, Russell, 68, 72
Baylis, Peter, 28
Draper, William, 97
Belgium, 3, 51
Drummond, Roscoe, 24, 26
Berding, Andrew, 77–79
Dulles, Allen, 20
Bevin, Ernest, 7
Dunn, James C., 50
Bidault, Georges, 7, 22–23, 99
Bilkur, Sefik, 95
Eaton, Charles, 20
Bissell, Richard, 13–14, 33, 36, 37, 38, 40,
Economic Cooperation Administration
44, 50, 54, 117, 118, 120
(ECA): Americanization, opposition to, 46,
Blücher, Franz, 108
85–86; clashes with other U.S. agencies,
Boeckler, Hans, 100
50; communism understanding lacking,
Bonsal, Philip, 39
125–26; corruption, absense of, 42; coun-
Brewster, Kingman, 37
terpart funds, use of, 26; creation, 8; draw-
Brookings Institution, xiii
ing rights concept, 44; European counter-
Buffett, Howard, 15, 90, 127
parts, 160n5; film production and use,
Busby, Fred, 15, 54
27–30, 79; independence, 34; information
branch, 24–30; information budget,
Cairncross, Alexander, 44–45
147n27; language problems in, 73; nonbu-
Canini, Giovanni, 79
reaucratic quality of, 34–35; Office of the
Catholic Church opposition to communism,
Special Representative (OSR, Paris), 11,
52, 76, 80, 85–86, 114
23; and oil companies, 122–23; personnel,
Chenery, Hollis, 83
37–39, 49; procurement authorizations,
Churchill, Winston S., 128
41; radio-television use, 26–27; size of,
Cisler, Walker, 66
35–36, 70–71; Washington offices, 36–37.
Citizens Committee for the Marshall Plan,
See also Harriman, W. Averell, and Hof-
18–22
fman, Paul G.
Clay, Lucius D., 97–103; clashes with ECA,
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 134–35
104–6
Erbi, Jacopo, 28–29
Clayton, William D., 5, 7, 9, 19, 73
Erhard, Ludwig, 49, 100–101, 106
Cleveland, Harlan, 33
European Payments Union, 44–46, 50, 110,
Coalition Provisional Authority (Iraq), 134
133
Collisson, Norman Harvey, 104
European Productivity Agency, 46
Cominform (Communist Information Bur-
European Recovery Program (ERP, Marshall
eau), 22–23, 63–64
Plan): committees appointed to study,
Committee for European Economic Cooper-
16–17; communism, goal of undermining,
ation, 7–8, 47–48
50–55; Communist propaganda against,
183


Index
22–23; congressional bill creating, 8, 11,
nomic collapse of 1945–47, 4; energy
21, 121; congressional visits to Europe,
projects, 109; ERP, attitude re, 96; ERP
27; contingencies aiding, 113–17; cost of,
implementation in, 95–110; financial-
41, 127, 142; counterpart funds, 42, 44;
monetary system before ERP, 96–97, 100,
economic data accuracy, 47–48; indirect
102; food relief, 108; GARIOA relief fund,
assistance, 44; institutional precondi-
96; housing construction, 108–9; infla-
tions, 117–18; Korean War impact, 14, 49;
tion, 4; Keynesianism rejected, 101; labor
lessons of, 127–34; loan amounts and
cooperation, 100–102; military govern-
interest, 145n11; nation-building model
ment–ECA problems, 49; occupation zone
usefulness, 113–23; neutrals excluded
mergers, 97; political impact of ERP, 33;
from grants, 87; popularity in Europe, 30;
refugees, 101, 108; Soviet reparations
popularity in U.S., 15–16, 21–22, 27, 121;
problem, 100; unemployment, 102, 106;
praise for, xiii, 134; preferences given U.S.
U.S. business practices adopted by, 46
interest groups, 121–23; publicity by
—photos: coal miners, 107; housing con-
recipient countries, 22, 26–27, 68; pur-
struction, 103; rebuilding (1945 vs. 1950),
chase percent in U.S., 41; recipient gide-
124; shipyard work, 98–99
lines, 33–34; trade deficits problem, 13;
Gervasi, Frank, 50
weaknesses, 47–50
Getz Wold, Knut, 121–22
Europe, West: ECA aid as percent of national
Griswold, Dwight, 58–59
income, 32; production levels, 8; recovery
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 118
(1945–46), 3
Gordon, Lincoln, 12, 13, 37–38, 40–41, 42,
Export-Import Bank, 145n11
83, 97, 104, 117, 147n29
Government and Relief in Occupied Areas
Ferno, John, 28
(GARIOA), 96
Fiat automobile company, 75, 85
Grady, Henry, 49–50, 72
Flanagan, Thomas, 24
Granby, Helene, 48
Foreign Assistance Act, 8, 121; congressional
Great Britain: auto exports (photo), 119;
passage of, 21; signing (photo), 11
counterpart fund use, 42; food and power
Forrestal, James, 79
rationing, 3; recovery (1945–46), 3; U.S.
Forrestal, Michael, 39, 149n23
business practices resisted, 46
Foster, William C., 144n5
Greece: agricultural improvements, 66–67;
France: Communist influence in, 10, 20, 23
Americanization efforts, 72; Communist
52–55, 99, 126; counterpart fund use, 42;
influence, 52–53, 60, 63; currency
ECA publicity in, 26; food relief, 3;
reform, 59; Cyprus question, 73; damage
Germany, concern re, 99; Monnet Plan,
to before ERP, 59–60; ECA power in,
42, 117; nationalization of industry, 133;
70–72; electric power grid, 66; ERP imple-
recovery (1945–46), 3; U.S. aid and the
mentation, 57–73; local government mod-
Left, 11; U.S. business practices resisted,
ernization, 67–69; and Macedonia, 63–64;
46
malaria control, 69–70; National Army,
—photos: grain shipment arrival, 43; Paris
62–64, 70–71; national budget reform, 69;
rail yard, 43; rebuilding a town, 43
nationalist backlash against U.S., 72–73;
Franks, Oliver, 7, 8, 31–32, 131
road construction, 63, 65–66; trade
Frederica, Queen of Greece, 60, 72
unions, 69; U.S. aid prior to ERP, 58–59;
Friendly, Alfred, 24–26, 30, 77
U.S. embassy–ECA clash, 49–50
—photos: bridge repair, 65; Corinth Canal,
Gallo, Vittorio, 28
61; ECA publicity display, 68; housing, 63;
Gasperi, Alcide de, 74, 85; photo of, 75
National Army, 70–71
Geiger, Theodore, 44, 117, 149n29
Gross, Ernest, 10
General Electric Company, 45
Gross, John E., 39
Germany, West: balance of payments crisis
(1950), 44–45; Berlin blockade, 102; coal
Halas, John, 28
prices, 105–6; Communist influence in,
Hall, Lawrence, 24
102; counterpart fund use, 108–9; eco-
Hall-Patch, Edmund, 115, 117
184


Index
Harkort, Gunther, 40
Joffe, Josef, 131–32
Harriman, W. Averell: background re, 39; and
British Socialists’ effectiveness, 132; com-
Katz, Milton, 12, 34, 37, 38, 50, 76, 97, 104
mittee on foreign aid, 17; Communist
Kennan, George F., 12, 15, 126, 132; ERP,
influence, seeks to reduce, 11–12, 50, 53;
wider applicability of, 118; Harvard speech
duties, 8; and Forrestal (Michael), 39,
contributions, 7; photo, 9; value of Marshall
149n23; Germany, problems with Lucius
Plan, 10
Clay in, 104–6; and Italian population
Kenney, John, 27
policies, 76; Italian wealthy criticized, 82;
Keynesian economic ideas, 13, 74, 101
Marjolin (Robert), attitude re, 115, 117;
Kindleberger, Charles, 16, 33, 47, 99
NATO favored over ECA, 49; New Deal
Knutson, Harold, 54
format used by, 49; Paris office problems,
Kontos, C. William, 131
36; and personnel quality, 49; photo of, 25;
Korean War, 87, 102
and Turkish investment climate, 93–94
Krug, Julius, 16–17
Harriman Committee, 7, 17, 20
Hatch, Carl, 38
Labouisse, Henry, 39
Havlik, Hubert F., 39, 160n5
Lane, Thomas, 79–80
Hedley, Oswald, 69
Leontief, Wassily, 83
Hemsing, Albert, 27, 29–30
Levy, Walter, 122–23
Hoffman, Paul G.: background, 39; Commu-
Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr., 128
nist influence, seeks to reduce, 54; duties,
Lovett, Robert A., 11, 16, 106; photo of, 19
8; and ECA’s role, 7; goals, 14; leadership
Lowenstein, James, 152n54
style, 131; lessons learned from ERP, 133;
Luce, Henry R., 39
photos of, 25, 68, 92; support for ERP,
17–18
MacArthur, Douglas, 97
Hogan, Michael, 143–44n2
Mace, Brice, 66–67, 71, 91
Hornby, Cliff, 28
Malagodi, Giovanni, 75, 76
House We Love, The (film), 28
Marjolin, Robert, 45, 114–17, 121–22, 131,
134, 145n14, 160n5
Inonu, Ismet, 87, 94–95
Markezinis, Spyros, 71
International Monetary Fund, 74
Marshall, George C., 6, 125, 128–29, 135;
Island of Faith, The (film), 28
hands-off approach to ECA, 37; Harvard
Italy: agricultural reform, 83; automobile
speech, 5, 7; photos of, 6, 9, 19, 25; ERP
production, 75, 85; birth control policies,
support sought by, 17–18
76; Catholic Church influence, 52, 76, 80,
Marshall Plan. See European Recovery
85–86; Christian Democrats party, 74–75,
Program
81–82, 85; Communist influence, 10, 20,
McCloy, John J., 106
23, 50–53, 77–78, 80, 82, 114; counter-
McCormick, Robert R., 16, 21
part fund use, 42, 74, 80–81; ECA reforms
McGhee, George, 90–91
opposed, 74; economic development poli-
McNaughton, John, 37
cies, 77; and ERP implementation, 73–86;
McNeill, William H., 53, 73
inflation (1944–47), 74, 81, 84–85; infor-
Menderes, Adnan, 87
mation operations in, 77–79; labor move-
Milward, Alan, 143–44n2, 144–45n11
ment, 79–80; land redistribution, 84;
Moch, Jules, 126
political impact of ERP, 33; population
Monnet, Jean, 116
surplus, 75–76; recovery of 1945–46, 3;
Monnet Plan, 42, 117
southern regional development, 83; U.S.
Moore, Maurice, 39, 149n23
aid and the Left, 11; U.S. embassy–ECA
Mullen, Robert, 27
clashes in, 49–50
Mutual Security Act, 14
—photos: housing construction, 81; land
Mutual Security Agency, 49
reclamation, 78; power plant construc-
tion, 82; roadbuilding, 84
National Security Council, 23
Iverson, Kenneth, 66
Netherlands, 3, 116, 127, 130
185


Index
Nielsen, Walter, 24
Thorez, Maurice, 22, 52, 126, 144n7
Nilson, Nils, 27, 29
Thornburg, Max, 89–91, 93
Nitze, Paul, 16, 47–48
Tito, Joseph, 60, 63–64
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 49, 102
Togliatti, Palmiro, 10, 23, 82, 126, 144n6
Norway, 3, 44, 51
Toughill, James, 79–80
Nourse, Edwin, 16–17
Toynbee, Arnold, 5
Nuveen, John, 49–50, 58–59, 70, 71
Truman, Harry S., 8, 11, 16, 20, 25, 36–37,
38, 90–91
Oil, 122–23
Tsatsos, Constantin, 71
Turkey: agriculture, 87–91; Communist
Packard, Walter, 67, 71
strength in, 86; counterpart fund use, 91,
Papagos, Alexander, 64, 114
94; ECA aid, disappointment with, 87–88,
Pastore, Giulio, 79–80
94; ECA effectiveness in, 95; industrializa-
Pella, Giuseppe, 75, 76
tion, 92–93; military expenses, 94; politi-
Plastiras, Nikolaos, 72
cal stability, 94–95; power and electrical
Plumley, Charles, 22
improvements, 93– 94; road construction,
Porter, Paul R., 38, 57, 61, 70–72
86, 92; Soviet threat to, 86, 94; tractor
President’s Committee on Foreign Aid (Har-
use, 88–89, 91–92
riman Committee), 7, 17, 20
Twentieth Century Fund, 53, 89
Reuss, Henry, 30, 39–40, 127, 128, 148n18
United States: ERP’s cost to, 121; export posi-
Rocchi, Appio, 79
tion (1947), 8; immigration policies, 76;
Rockefeller, John D., 19
Interim Aid bill (1947), 20; sacrifices for
Roll, Eric, 116, 117
ERP, 44–46
Sachs, Hans-Georg, 102
Vafiadis, Markos, 63–64
Sadak, Necmeddin, 86, 94
Valentine, Alan, 37, 39, 130–31
Schelling, Thomas, 40, 129
Vandenberg, Arthur, 16, 20
Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr., 55, 146n7
Van der Beugel, Ernst, 40, 143n1
Schulberg, Stuart, 27, 29
Van Fleet, James A., 63, 64, 114
Shoemaker and the Hatter, The (film), 28
Van Hyning, Samuel, 38, 54
Sonnenhol, Gustav, 109–10
Venizelos, Sophocles, 72
Spaak, Paul-Henri, 51, 132
Vicas, Victor, 28
Stalin, Josef, 8, 10, 11, 21, 64, 97, 102, 110,
125–26
Walker, John O., 68, 72
Starch, Elmer A., 90–91
Walters, Vernon, 32, 36, 73, 108
State Department: control of ERP not under,
War Production Board, 38
34–35, 39; European recovery plans, 5;
Warren, James C., Jr., 73, 145n17, 149n29
European regionalism, opposition to, 50;
Wherry, Kenneth, 90, 145n2
Germany, problems in, 98–100; informa-
White, Theodore H., 12, 26, 42, 74, 148n16
tion collection, 16; personnel transferred
Wolff, Lothar, 27, 29, 102
to ECA, 39
Wood, C. Tyler, 39, 118, 120
Stikker, Dirk U., 31
World Bank, 93, 133, 134
Story of Koula, The (film), 28
World Federation of Trade Unions, 79
Strachan, Douglas A., 69
Sulzberger, C. L., 49, 52, 87
Yugoslavia, and Greek border, 64
Taber, John, 41
Zahariadis, Nikos, 63–64
Technical Assistance and Productivity Pro-
Zellerbach, James D., 39, 76, 83
gram, 45–47
Zhdanov, Andrei, 22
Tenenbaum, Edward, 100
Zorlu, Fatin, 87
186

 

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