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Memorandum for General Handy
August 2, 1943 [Washington, D.C.]
Subject: Rome an open city.
The Secretary of State, Mr. Hull, just telephoned me that the Apostolic Delegate from the Vatican had informed the State Department that the new Italian government had notified the Vatican of their desire to declare Rome an open city.1 Before making such a declaration they must know the essential conditions.
I gave this to General Hull over the telephone and asked him to prepare the statement of the conditions.
G. C. M.
Document Copy Text Source: Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs (RG 165), Records of the Operations Division (OPD), 300.6 OCS Papers, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland.
Document Format: Typed memorandum signed.
1. Benito Mussolini had been removed from office and arrested on July 25; Marshal Pietro Badoglio was appointed to head a new Italian government. On July 31 the Vatican received word from the Italian government that it intended to declare Rome an open city; this information was transmitted to the State Department on August 2. This was Italy’s first diplomatic approach to the Allies. (Albert N. Garland and Howard McGaw Smyth, Sicily and the Surrender of Italy, a volume in the United States Army in World War II [Washington: GPO, 1965], pp. 268, 278-79.)
Recommended Citation: ThePapers of George Catlett Marshall, ed.Larry I. Bland and Sharon Ritenour Stevens(Lexington, Va.: The George C. Marshall Foundation, 1981- ). Electronic version based on The Papers of George Catlett Marshall, vol. 4, “Aggressive and Determined Leadership,” June 1, 1943-December 31, 1944 (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), p. 78.