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Preface
1. Ernst van der Beugel, head of the Marshall Plan division within the Dutch Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, quoted London’s Economist in comments on a speech delivered by Sir Oliver
Franks at a Marshall Plan 30th Commemorative Conference held in Paris, June 1977. Text of
the speech and commentaries are in Box 1, Folder 9, ERP Commemoratives Collection,
George C. Marshall Library, Lexington, Virginia (hereafter cited as GCML).
2. Interview with Paul R. Porter, Harry B. Price Papers, GCML; Constantine C. Menges,
ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made It Succeed (Lanham, Md., 1999), 3, 7.
3. See Charles Cerami, Marshall Plan for the 1990s (New York, 1989); and Wojciech
Kostrzewa et al., “A Marshall Plan for Middle and Eastern Europe?” World Economy 13 (March
1990): 27–50. For some recent invocations of the Marshall Plan as a silver bullet, consult U.S.
House of Representatives, Committee on International Relations, Hearing, “Economic
Development and Integration as a Catalyst for Peace: A Marshall Plan for the Middle East”
(107th Cong., 2nd sess.), July 24, 2002; John A. Merkwan, “Balkan Stability and the ‘Second
Marshall Plan,’ ” Strategy Research Project, U.S. Army War College (2000); Philip Dimitrov,
“To Ensure Peace in the Balkans, A New Marshall Plan,” Boston Globe, June 26, 1999;
Francine Kiefer, “Will A New Marshall Plan Work in Balkans?” Christian Science Monitor,
July 30, 1999; George Melloan, “Europe’s Balkan ‘Marshall Plan’ Has Many Pitfalls,” Wall
Street Journal, June 15, 1999. Of late, there is Robert Evans, “U.N. Urges Trade ‘Marshall
Plan’ for Poor States,” Washington Post, June 14, 2005; Ibrahim al-Jaafari, “A New Marshall
Plan for Iraq,” Times (London), June 27, 2005; Doug Smith and Borzou Daragahi, “Marshall
Plan for Iraq Fades,” Los Angeles Times, January 15, 2006; and Michael R. Auslin, “North
Korea’s Marshall Plan,” Asian Wall Street Journal, August 15, 2006, 13. Al-Jaafari, Iraq’s for-
mer Prime Minister, claims that today’s dollar equivalent of Marshall Plan aid, 1948–52, is
$500,000,000,000, a grossly inflated figure and more on the order of $90–100,000,000,000.
Chapter I:
Conceptualizing the Marshall Plan
1. Tony Judt, Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (New York, 2005), 116; Lincoln
Gordon Oral History (July 17, 1975), 66, Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri
(hereafter cited as HSTL); George W. Ball, The Past Has Another Pattern: Memoirs (New
York, 1982), 77; Robert J. Donovan, The Second Victory: The Marshall Plan and Postwar
Revival of Europe (Lanham, Md., 1987), 20; Robert Marjolin, Architect of European Unity:
Memoirs, 1911–1986 (London, 1989), 180. Norway imposed tight rationing on consumer
goods until 1951. See Halvard M. Lange Oral History, 7, HSTL.
2. Scholarly disagreement has the U.K.’s Official Cabinet Historian, Alan Milward, on
one side. In his The Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1945–1951 (Berkeley, Calif., 1984);
“Was the Marshall Plan Necessary?” Diplomatic History 13 (1989): 231–53, and “Europe and
the Marshall Plan: 50 Years On,” in John Agnew and J. Nicholas Entrikin, eds., The Marshall
Plan Today: Model and Metaphor (London, 2004), 58–81, the leading revisionist Milward
developed his complex case against the Marshall Plan playing a crucial or very significant role
in restoring West Europe back to health. The dissenters on the other side are American diplo-
matic historian Michael Hogan, The Marshall Plan: America, Britain, and the Reconstruction
143


Notes to pages 7–12
of Western Europe, 1947–1952 (Cambridge, 1987), and American economists Barry
Eichengreen, Marc Uzan, and J. Bradford DeLong. See Eichengreen and Uzan, “The Marshall
Plan: Economic Effects and Implications for Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union,”
Economic Policy 14 (April 1992): 13–75; DeLong and Eichengreen, “The Marshall Plan:
History’s Most Successful Structural Adjustment Program,” in Rudiger Dornbusch et al., eds.,
Postwar Economic Reconstruction and Lessons for the East Today (Cambridge, Mass.,
1993), 189–230; DeLong, “Post–World War II Western European Exceptionalism: The
Economic Dimension,” in Agnew and Entrikin, eds., The Marshall Plan Today, 25–57.
Kathleen Burk has persuasively criticized Milward’s analysis as “relentlessly economic” and
Hogan’s as “relentlessly political.” See her “The Marshall Plan from the European Per-
spective,” The 1995 Sir Alec Cairncross Lecture, St. Peter’s College, Oxford, England, Septem-
ber 22, 1995. Eichengreen and Uzan draw a distinction between the Marshall Plan’s direct
and indirect impact on West European economic growth. Both sides have gathered followers
and defenders.
3. Paul Hoffman, “The Marshall Plan: Peace Building—Its Price and Its Profits,” Foreign
Service Journal 44 (June 1967): 20; Paul G. Hoffman Oral History (October 1964), 8, HSTL.
Hoffman authored the “Only the Europeans Can Save Europe” line.
4. Oliver Franks, “Lessons of the Marshall Plan Experience,” June 1977, in Box 1, Folder
9, ERP Commemoratives Collection, GCML. France underwent some arm-twisting over her
initial postwar policy towards Germany. See Milward, The Reconstruction of Western Europe,
Chapter 4.
5. Imanuel Wexler, The Marshall Plan Revisited: The European Recovery Program in
Economic Perspective (Westport, Conn., 1983), 14. Hoffman oversaw the Marshall Plan until his
resignation in August 1950, when he was replaced by William C. Foster, another industrialist.
6. Charles L. Mee, The Marshall Plan: The Launching of the Pax Americana (New York,
1984), 117, 208; Joseph M. Jones, The Fifteen Weeks (New York, 1955), 263; Kathleen Burk,
“The Marshall Plan: Filling in Some of the Blanks,” Contemporary European History 10
(2001): 267–94; David Ellwood, “From ‘Re-education’ to the Selling of the Marshall Plan in
Italy,” in Nicholas Pronay and Keith Wilson, eds., The Political Re-education of Germany and
Her Allies After World War II (Totowa, N.J., 1985), 223–24. Professor Luciano Segreto,
University of Florence, has concluded from Italian sources that “Togliatti . . . did not want
any revolution at all in Italy.” Segreto to author, June 20, 2006.
7. Diane B. Kunz, “The Marshall Plan Reconsidered,” Foreign Affairs 76 (May-June
1997): 165. In a revealing interview at Communist Party headquarters in Paris on February
6, 1948, Maurice Thorez lectured the chief foreign correspondent for the New York Times
that U.S. policy was hurtling the world toward war “within a relatively short time” and that
“a grave economic crisis” would soon plunge the United States into another depression that
would spread worldwide. See C. L. Sulzberger, A Long Row of Candles: Memoirs and Diaries,
1934–1954 (New York, 1969), 377–79.
8. Melvyn P. Leffler, “The United States and the Strategic Dimensions of the Marshall
Plan,” Diplomatic History 12 (Summer 1988): 277–81.
9. Averell Harriman Oral History (1971), HSTL; Theodore H. White, In Search of
History: A Personal Adventure (New York, 1978), 277. “That Western Europe would have
‘gone Communist’ without the ERP” the historian Charles S. Maier finds “unlikely.” See
Maier, “The Marshall Plan and the Division of Europe,” Journal of Cold War Studies 7, no. 1
(2005): 173.
10. Stanley Hoffmann and Charles Maier, eds., The Marshall Plan: A Retrospective
(London, 1984), 66; Milton Katz Oral History (July 1975), HSTL.
11. Thomas C. Schelling, “The Marshall Plan: A Model for What?” in Agnew and
Entrikin, eds., The Marshall Plan Today, 236; Curt Tarnoff, “The Marshall Plan: Design,
144


Notes to pages 13–17
Accomplishments, and Relevance to the Present,” in Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from
Those Who Made It Succeed, 362, 365; Milward, The Reconstruction of Western Europe,
94–95. Like many students of the Marshall Plan, Tarnoff and Milward disagree about the
amount of the nonloan component of American aid. Whether Tarnoff’s $12,840,000,000, or
Milward’s $11,900,000,000, assistance did take three forms. Milward’s breakdown is: outright
grant ($9.2 billion), conditional grant ($1,540,000,000), and loan ($1,140,000,000). In his
calculations Tarnoff lumps the two different grants together. ECA loans, about whose dollar
value Tarnoff and Milward agree, were administered through the Export-Import Bank, gener-
ally carrying an interest rate of 2.5% on thirty-five-year notes.
12. David Reynolds, “The European Response,” Foreign Affairs 76 (May-June 1997):
177; Charles S. Maier, “From Plan to Practice: The Context and Consequences of the Marshall
Plan,” Harvard Magazine 99 (May-June 1997): 42–43.
13. Lincoln Gordon to Harry B. Price, November 12, 1954; Van Cleveland to Harry B.
Price, July 30, 1954, with 4-page attachment, Box 1, Price Papers, GCML.
14. Albert O. Hirschman, Crossing Boundaries (Cambridge, Mass., 1998), 35–39; John
Killick, The United States and European Reconstruction, 1945–1960 (Edinburgh, 1997), 10;
Hoffmann and Maier, eds., The Marshall Plan, 11; Maier, “From Plan to Practice,” Harvard
Magazine, 43. Robert Marjolin, who became a Keynesian himself before World War II after
reading The General Theory, found every American economist cooperating with the CEEC in
the summer of 1947 to be a fellow Keynesian. See his memoirs in translation, Architect of
European Unity, 120–21, 185.
15. Hoffman, “The Marshall Plan.”
16. David Ellwood, “The Marshall Plan and the Politics of Growth,” in Peter Stirk and
David Willis, eds., Shaping Postwar Europe: European Unity and Disunity, 1945–1957 (New
York, 1991), 17, 26. Conventionally, Hoffman’s speech to the OEEC Council in Paris on
October 31, 1949, in which he promoted the cause of regional integration, dates the shift in
ECA’s priorities.
17. With persistence, James Warren has pointed out to me that the only change occur-
ring on December 31, 1951, was the issuance of new stationery with a new letterhead.
Chapter II:
Selling the Marshall Plan
1. Harold L. Hitchens, “Influences on the Congressional Decision to Pass the Marshall
Plan,” Western Political Quarterly 21 (March 1968): 60, 67.
2. Congressional Record (80th Cong., 1st Sess.) December 8, 1947, 11: 150–56; Evan
Thomas and Walter Isaacson, The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made (New
York, 1986), 427; Will Clayton, “Is the Marshall Plan ‘Operation Rathole’?” Saturday Evening
Post 222 (November 29, 1947): 26–27, 137–38. Commonplace among doubters, skeptics, and
critics, the caustic expression “Operation Rathole” apparently originated with Republican
Senator Kenneth Wherry of Nebraska. Other strident congressional opponents of the Marshall
Plan were Representative Harold Knutson of Minnesota, Representative George Bender of
Ohio, Senator William Langer of North Dakota, and Senator George Malone of Nevada.
3. The most informative biography of Robert R. McCormick is Richard Norton Smith,
The Colonel: The Life and Legend of Robert R. McCormick (Boston, Mass., 1997).
4. Charles P. Kindleberger, “In the Halls of the Capitol: A Memoir,” Foreign Affairs 76 (May-
June 1997): 186–87; Lincoln Gordon to Harry Price, November 12, 1954, Box 1, Price Papers,
GCML; “Outline of Remarks by Paul G. Hoffman,” June 5, 1967, Box 1, Folder 4, ERP Com-
memoratives Collection, GCML.
145


Notes to pages 17–24
5. Hitchens, “Influences on the Congressional Decision,” 65; Hoffmann and Maier, eds.,
The Marshall Plan, 15–17.
6. Richard Bissell Oral History (July 1971), HSTL; Bissell, Reflections of a Cold Warrior
(New Haven, Conn., 1996), 36–37.
7. Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made It Succeed, 89, 197–98. The
noted Harvard historian Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., who spent the summer of 1948 as Harriman’s
assistant at OSR, Paris, with “special responsibility for his public appearances,” has recol-
lected that “in those days he was an inveterate mumbler.” See Schlesinger, A Life in the
Twentieth Century: Innocent Beginnings, 1917–1950 (Boston, 2000), 471.
8. Shaw Livermore Oral History (March 1974), HSTL.
9. Gunther Harkort Oral History (November 1970), HSTL; J. Bradford DeLong and Barry
Eichengreen, “The Marshall Plan,” in Dornbusch et al., eds., Postwar Economic Recon-
struction and Lessons For the East Today, 218.
10. Larry I. Bland, ed., George C. Marshall Interviews and Reminiscences for Forrest
C. Pogue, 3d ed. (Lexington, Va., 1996), 556–60; Forrest C. Pogue, George C. Marshall:
Statesman, 1945–1959 (New York, 1987), 244–57; Ed Cray, General of the Army: George C.
Marshall, Soldier and Statesman (New York, 1990), 620; Federico Romero, The United
States and the European Trade Union Movement, 1944–1951 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1992), 109.
11. Michael Wala, “Selling the Marshall Plan at Home,” Diplomatic History 10 (Summer
1986): 258–59, 262; John Bledsoe Bonds, Bipartisan Strategy: Selling the Marshall Plan
(Westport, Conn., 2002), 79–87; Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the
State Department (New York, 1969), 240–41. On CCMP, also consult Michael Wala, The
Council on American Foreign Relations and American Foreign Policy in the Early Cold War
(Providence, R.I., 1994), 181–216.
12. Hitchens, “Influences on the Congressional Decision,” 51.
13. Allen W. Dulles, The Marshall Plan (Providence, R.I., 1993), 33, 95.
14. Hitchens, “Influences on the Congressional Decision,” 51–52, 52 n. 3, 59; Mildred
Strunk, “The Quarter’s Polls,” Public Opinion Quarterly 12 (Summer 1948): 365–67. For
reverberations on Capitol Hill from the Czech coup, see Bonds, Bipartisan Strategy, 155–57,
161–64, 171–73, 177–86, 200–201.
15. Paul G. Hoffman, Peace Can Be Won (Garden City, N.Y., 1951), 91; Wala, “Selling the
Marshall Plan at Home,” 264.
16. Richard Bissell Oral History (July 1971), HSTL.
17. Wala, “Selling the Marshall Plan at Home,” 264.
18. David Ellwood, “You Too Can Be Like Us: Selling the Marshall Plan,” History Today
48 (October 1998): 33–39; Ellwood, “The Marshall Plan and the Politics of Growth,” 18.
19. Robert R. Mullen to Harry Price, July 27, 1954, Box 2, Price Papers, GCML;
Sulzberger, A Long Row of Candles, 361.
20. David Ellwood, in Nicholas Pronay and Keith Wilson, eds., The Political Re-educa-
tion of Germany and Her Allies After World War II (Totowa, N.J., 1985), 225; Judt, Postwar,
96. Twenty years later, in the student uprising of May 1968, children of the 1948 generation
were still hostile to market forces and still bent on creating a socialist society in France.
21. Andrew Berding to Harry Price, June 8, 1954, Box 1, Price Papers, GCML.
22. Mark Wyatt Oral History, February 1996, National Security Archive, George Wash-
ington University, Washington, D.C. (hereafter cited as NSA, GWU).
23. Interview with Richard Bissell, Price Papers, GCML; Sallie Pisani, The CIA and the
Marshall Plan (Lawrence, Kans., 1991), 129.
146


Notes to pages 24–31
24. John N. Hutchinson to Harry Price, June 3, 1954, Box 2; interview with Thomas
Flanagan and Lawrence Hall, Price Papers, GCML.
25. Berding to Price, June 8, 1954, Box 1, Price Papers, GCML; Hoffman, Peace Can Be
Won, 143–44.
26. Alfred Friendly Obituary by Martin Weil, Washington Post, November 8, 1983. On
Waldemar (Wally) Nielsen, see Wolfgang Saxon, “Waldemar Nielsen, Expert on Philanthropy,
Dies at 88,” New York Times, November 4, 2005; Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those
Who Made It Succeed, 198–200.
27. Alfred Friendly to Harry Price, May 29, 1954, Box 1, Price Papers, GCML; Chiarella
Esposito, America’s Feeble Weapon: Funding the Marshall Plan in France and Italy,
1948–1950 (Westport, Conn., 1994), 95, 98–99; Theodore H. White, In Search of History: A
Personal Adventure (New York, 1978), 273. ECA’s information budget ultimately reached
$17,000,000 in counterpart, according to Paul Hoffman. See Peace Can Be Won, 144.
28. Mullen to Price, December 3, 1954, Box 2, Price Papers, GCML; W. John Kenney
Oral History (November 1971), HSTL; Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made
It Succeed, 106, 200; Martin Schain, ed., The Marshall Plan: Fifty Years After (New York,
2001), 269.
29. Linda R. Christenson, “Marshall Plan Filmography” (2000) at www.marshallfilms.org;
Albert Hemsing, “The Marshall Plan’s European Film Unit, 1948–1955: A Memoir and
Filmography,” Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 14 (August 1994): 279–97;
Thomas Doherty, “A Symposium on the Marshall Plan Films in New York City,” Historical
Journal of Film, Radio and Television 25 (March 2005): 151–54. In 1946 nearly 90% of
Italian box office receipts went for foreign films, mostly American. The following year French
movie studios produced just forty films while importing from the United States more than
eight times that number. See Judt, Postwar, 231. The most recent public screenings of “Films
of the Marshall Plan,” twenty-four in number, took place at National Archives, Washington,
D.C., October 17–20, 2006. Preceding them was a Panel Discussion with Charles Maier,
Lincoln Gordon, Amy Garrett, and Sandra Schulberg.
30. Stuart Schulberg, “Making Marshall Plan Movies,” Film News (September 1951): 10,
19, as quoted in Sandra Schulberg and Richard Pena, Selling Democracy: Films of the
Marshall Plan, 1948–1953 (New York, 2004). Also at www.sellingdemocracy.org.
31. “The Men Behind the Marshall Plan Films,” in Schulberg and Pena, Selling
Democracy; David Culbert, “Albert E. Hemsing, 1921–1997,” Historical Journal of Film,
Radio and Television 17 (August 1997): 401–2; Hemsing, “The Marshall Plan’s European Film
Unit,” 269–78.
32. Hutchinson to Price, June 3, 1954, Box 2, Price Papers, GCML.
33. Anthony B. Carew, Labour Under the Marshall Plan: The Politics of Productivity
and the Marketing of Managerial Science (Detroit, Mich., 1987), 223, 240, 249–50.
34. Friendly to Price, May 29, 1954, Box 1, Price Papers, GCML.
35. Ellwood, “You Too Can Be Like Us”; Schain, ed., The Marshall Plan, 286; Pisani, The
CIA and the Marshall Plan, 104.
Chapter III:
Analyzing the Marshall Plan
1. Donovan, The Second Victory, Preface; Agnew and Entrikin, eds., The Marshall Plan
Today, 191.
2. Dafne C. Reymen, “The Economic Effects of the Marshall Plan Revisited,” in Agnew
and Entrikin, eds., The Marshall Plan Today, 82.
147


Notes to pages 32–37
3. Dirk U. Stikker Oral History (April 1964), 2, HSTL; Oliver Franks, “Lessons of the
Marshall Plan Experience,” Box 1, Folder 9, ERP Commemoratives Collection, GCML.
4. Hogan, The Marshall Plan, 337, 415; Robin W. Winks, The Marshall Plan and the
American Economy (New York, 1960), 45; Wexler, The Marshall Plan Revisited, 250–52;
Eichengreen and Uzan, “The Marshall Plan,” 202, 204–5; DeLong and Eichengreen, “The
Marshall Plan,” 219; Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made It Succeed,
369–70.
5 Imanuel Wexler, “The Marshall Plan in Economic Perspective: Goals and
Accomplishments,” in Schain, ed., The Marshall Plan, 147–51.
6. Schain, ed., The Marshall Plan, 6–7; Judt, Postwar, 97; Vernon Walters, “The
Marshall Plan and Harriman,” in Walters, Silent Missions (Garden City, N.Y., 1978), 187–88;
Chiarella Esposito, “Influencing Aid Recipients: Marshall Plan Lessons For Contemporary Aid
Donors,” in Barry Eichengreen, ed, Europe’s Postwar Recovery (Cambridge, U.K., 1995), 68,
77, 84–86, 88.
7. Charles P. Kindleberger, Marshall Plan Days (Boston, 1987), 74, 88, 90, 246; Agnew
and Entrikin, eds., The Marshall Plan Today, 84.
8. Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made It Succeed, 367; Agnew and
Entrikin, eds., The Marshall Plan Today, 234; DeLong and Eichengreen, “The Marshall Plan,”
191; Eichengreen and Uzan, “The Marshall Plan,” 227, 230–33, 238.
9. Interview with Harold Stein, Price Papers, GCML; Shaw Livermore Oral History
(March 1974), HSTL; William Pfaff, “Expanding Headaches,” International Herald Tribune,
June 24–25, 2006, 6.
10. Hoffmann and Maier, eds., The Marshall Plan, 51, 77, 80; C. A. Munkman, American
Aid to Greece: A Report on the First Ten Years (New York, 1958), 273; Milton Katz Oral
History (July 1975), HSTL.
11. Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made It Succeed, 188.
12. Interview with Russell Dorr, Price Papers, GCML.
13. William Parks Oral History, November 1988, Foreign Affairs Oral History Project
(hereafter cited as FAOHP), Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.; Richard Bissell Oral
History (July 1971), HSTL; Lincoln Gordon, “ERP in Operation,” Harvard Business Review
27 (March 1949): 132; Hadley Arkes, Bureaucracy, the Marshall Plan, and the National
Interest (Princeton, N.J., 1972), 245, 290–91; Theodore H. White, Fire in the Ashes: Europe
in Midcentury (New York, 1953), 61–62.
14. Melbourne Spector Oral History, December 1988, FAOHP, Georgetown University;
interview with Sam Board, Price Papers, GCML.
15. Comments by Miriam Camps on Speech by Oliver Franks, Paris, June 1977, Box 1,
Folder 9, ERP Commemoratives Collection, GCML.
16. Kunz, “The Marshall Plan Reconsidered,” 167; interview with Richard Bissell, Price
Papers, GCML. In his autobiography Theodore White actually comments favorably on the
size of OSR, Paris. “At its peak,” he declares, “the Paris headquarters . . . held only 587 peo-
ple on payroll, and another 839 all across Europe” [italics added]. White’s figures approxi-
mate Bissell’s, but they describe a different distribution of personnel. See In Search of
History, 302; William Parks Oral History, November 1988, FAOHP, Georgetown University.
17. Leland Barrows Oral History (January 1971), HSTL.
18. Melbourne Spector, “A Transcendent Experience,” in Menges, ed., The Marshall
Plan from Those Who Made It Succeed, 84; William Parks Oral History, FAOHP, Georgetown
University; W. John Kenney Oral History (November 1971), 65, HSTL; Alan Valentine, Trial
Balance: The Education of an American (New York, 1956), 165. Henry Reuss praised ECA’s
148


Notes to pages 37–41
operational leadership—Hoffman, Harriman, and Foster—as an “inspiration” and thought
that “one reason Marshall Planners were a happy breed was that we admired our bosses.” See
his autobiography, When Government Was Good: Memories of a Life in Politics (Madison,
Wisc., 1999), 30–31.
19. Interview with Sam Board, Price Papers, GCML; Theodore Geiger Oral History
(February 1996), NSA, GWU; Forrest Pogue, “George C. Marshall and the Marshall Plan,” 65,
in Charles Maier and Gunter Bischof, eds., The Marshall Plan and Germany (New York,
1991); Lincoln Gordon, “Recollections of a Marshall Planner,” Journal of International
Affairs 41 (Summer 1988): 237; Lincoln Gordon Oral History (July 22, 1975), 119, HSTL;
Alan Raucher, Paul G. Hoffman: Architect of Foreign Aid (Lexington, Ky., 1985), 61, 65.
20. Paul G. Hoffman Oral History (October 1964), HSTL; interview with Paul Hoffman,
Price Papers, GCML; Gordon, “Recollections of a Marshall Planner,” 238; interview with Sam
Board, Price Papers, GCML; Gordon, “ERP in Operation,” 132; Valentine, Trial Balance,
169–73; Melbourne Spector Oral History, December 1988, FAOHP, Georgetown University;
Richard Bissell Oral History (July 1971), HSTL.
21. Leland Barrows Oral History (January 1971), Paul R. Porter Oral History (November
1971), HSTL; Paul Porter to Harry Price, September 15, 1954, Box 2, Price Papers, GCML;
Carolyn Eisenberg, “Working Class Politics and the Cold War: American Intervention in the
German Labor Movement, 1945–1949,” Diplomatic History 7 (Fall 1983): 284–85 n.10.
22. Spector, “A Transcendent Experience,” in Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from
Those Who Made It Succeed, 78.
23 Hatch to Donald Stone, May 19, 1948; Stone to Harriman, June 10, 1948, Box 267,
W. Averell Harriman Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (hereafter cited as LC).
In Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made It Succeed, 83, Melbourne Spector
erroneously refers to Maurice Moore as Hoffman’s brother-in-law. Hiring Michael Forrestal
may have been more nepotism than cronyism. Note the observation by Arthur Schlesinger,
Jr., on the relationship between the Forrestal and Harriman families. “Because of his moth-
er’s alcoholism and his father’s preoccupations,” Michael Forrestal was “largely reared by the
Harrimans.” See A Life in the Twentieth Century, 471.
24. Leland Barrows Oral History (January 1971); Hubert Havlik Oral History (June
1973), 141, 156–61, HSTL; William Parks Oral History, FAOHP, Georgetown University.
While attached to the U.S. Embassy in Paris as a Foreign Service Officer, Philip Bonsal also
served as Harriman’s Political Adviser at OSR, 1948–50.
25. Raucher, Paul G. Hoffman, 43–50, 61; Hoffmann and Maier, eds., The Marshall Plan,
68; Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made It Succeed, 242; Reuss, When
Government Was Good, 30–31.
26. Gunther Harkort Oral History (November 1970); Ernst H. van der Beugel Oral
History (June 1964), HSTL. The Secretary-General for Administration of the Marshall Plan in
Belgium appraised the ECA mission in Brussels as comprised of “first-class people” and “real-
ly the top.” Roger Ockrent Oral History (July 1971), 18–19, HSTL.
27. Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made It Succeed, 304–5.
28. Lincoln Gordon Oral History, January 1988, FAOHP, Georgetown University;
Lincoln Gordon Oral History (July 17, 1975), 67, HSTL; Paul Nitze, From Hiroshima to
Glasnost: At the Center of Decision, a Memoir (New York, 1989), 52.
29. Primary sources for much of the following discussion of ECA innovations are
Theodore Geiger, “The Innovations of the Marshall Plan,” in Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan
from Those Who Made It Succeed, 303–6; and Theodore Geiger Oral History (February
1996), NSA, GWU. Geiger served in ECA Washington as Richard Bissell’s right-hand man and
has apparently described standard procedures. Chief of the Import Program Office, Athens,
149


Notes to pages 41–46
James C. Warren, experienced a different mechanism. In some European countries less fun-
neling through Washington occurred. In Warren’s version, the sequence of steps for import-
ing ECA commodities omitted a government purchasing mission in Washington and bypassed
governmental ownership of American exports right up to their delivery in Europe. Importers
deposited local currency in local banks to purchase foreign exchange to pay for dollar-
denominated goods, instead of buying them from the local government. Warren to author,
February 8, 2006. Warren’s memory is supported by A. F. Freris in The Greek Economy in the
Twentieth Century (New York, 1986), 133.
30. Theodore A. Wilson, The Marshall Plan, 1947–1951 (New York, 1977), 42.
31. Curt Tarnoff, “The Marshall Plan,” in Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those
Who Made It Succeed, 373; Bonds, Bipartisan Strategy, 98–99. Consult, also, the Marshall
Plan film Your Eighty Dollars (1952)
32. Lincoln Gordon Oral History, January 1988, FAOHP, Georgetown University;
Lincoln Gordon Oral History (July 22, 1975), 125, HSTL; Clarke to Price, September 21,
1954, Box 1, Price Papers, GCML; White, In Search of History, 278.
33. Agnew and Entrikin, eds., The Marshall Plan Today, 100. According to Hadley
Arkes, UNRRA had first introduced an unrefined form of counterpart, and interim aid contin-
ued the practice. See Bureaucracy, the Marshall Plan, and the National Interest, 156–57.
34. Etienne Hirsch Oral History (June 1970), HSTL; Judt, Postwar, 96; Killick, The
United States and European Reconstruction, 102; Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from
Those Who Made It Succeed, 363, 365. Robert Marjolin put the amount of counterpart
released by ECA at $7,600,000,000. See Marjolin, Architect of European Unity, 226.
35. Theodore Christides Oral History (July 1970), HSTL; Marjolin, Architect of
European Unity, 198–99. The key institution for the functioning of “drawing rights” was the
Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in Basel, Switzerland, which served as OEEC’s fis-
cal agent. There a monthly settlement of current balances of member central banks took
place. Hubert Havlik Oral History (June 1973), HSTL.
36. Bissell, Reflections of a Cold Warrior, 57, 61–62, 64; Arkes, Bureaucracy, the
Marshall Plan, and the National Interest, 363; Wexler, The Marshall Plan Revisited, 153–59;
Lucrezia Reichlin, “The Marshall Plan Reconsidered,” 52–53, in Barry Eichengreen, ed.,
Europe’s Postwar Recovery (Cambridge, U.K., 1995); Alexander Cairncross Oral History
(June 1970), HSTL. The most comprehensive treatment of the EPU is Jacob J. Kaplan and
Gunther Schleimenger, The European Payments Union: Financial Diplomacy in the 1950s
(Oxford, U.K., 1989).
37. Agnew and Entrikin, eds., The Marshall Plan Today, 176–77; Helge Berger and
Albrecht Ritschl, “Germany and the Political Economy of the Marshall Plan, 1947–52: A Re-
revisionist View,” in Eichengreen, ed., Europe’s Postwar Recovery, 228–41. Maximizing
leverage, ECA retained its EPU contribution in Washington, releasing funds as needed instead
of depositing a lump sum in an EPU account at BIS in Basel. Hubert Havlik Oral History (June
1973), 180, HSTL.
38. Hirschman, Crossing Boundaries, 41–42.
39. Frank Schipper, “You Too Can Be Like Us: Americanizing European (Road) Transport
After World War II,” paper delivered at the T2M Conference, York, England, October 6–9,
2005; Curt Tarnoff, “The Marshall Plan: Design, Accomplishments and Relevance to the
Present,” 364, in Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made It Succeed; Kathleen
Burk, “The Marshall Plan: Filling in Some of the Blanks,” Contemporary European History
10 (2001): 274.
40. Matthias Kipping and Ove Bjarner, eds., The Americanisation of European Business:
The Marshall Plan and the Transfer of US Management Models (London, 1998), 129, 197;
150


Notes to pages 47–52
Lucrezia Reichlin, “The Marshall Plan Reconsidered,” 44, in Eichengreen, ed., Europe’s
Postwar Recovery; Tarnoff, “The Marshall Plan,” 364–65.
41. Kipping and Bjarner, eds., The Americanisation of European Business, 14;
Jacqueline McGlade, “From Business Reform Programme to Production Drive,” 18–34, in
Kipping and Bjarner; McGlade, “A Single Path for European Recovery?” 192–95, in Schain,
ed., The Marshall Plan; McGlade, “Confronting the Marshall Plan: US Business and European
Recovery,” 177–78, in John Agnew and J. Nicholas Entrikin, eds., The Marshall Plan Today:
Model and Metaphor (London, 2004). Also consult Solidelle F. Wasser and Michael L.
Dolfman, “BLS and the Marshall Plan: The Forgotten Story,” Monthly Labor Review 128
(June 2005): 44–52.
42. Charles Kindleberger Oral History (July 1973), HSTL; Ernst H. van der Beugel Oral
History (June 1964), HSTL; Nitze, From Hiroshima to Glasnost, 55, 59; Marjolin, Architect
of European Unity, 185, and Le Travail d’Une Vie (Paris, 1986), 186–87, as cited in William
Diebold, “The Marshall Plan in Retrospect: A Review of Recent Scholarship,” Journal of
International Affairs 41 (Summer 1988): 431; ECA, Italy: Country Study (1949), 44, 50; Vera
Zamagni, “Betting on the Future: The Reconstruction of Italian Industry, 1946–1952,”
287–88, in Josef Becker and Franz Knipping, eds., Power in Europe? (Berlin, 1986); David
Reynolds, “The European Response,” Foreign Affairs 76 (May-June 1997): 177; Wilson, The
Marshall Plan, 26–27.
43. Interviews with Harlan Cleveland, Helene Granby, Herbert Rees, and Robert Marjolin,
Price Papers, GCML; Randall B. Woods, The Marshall Plan: A Forty Year Perspective (Wash-
ington, D.C., 1987), 23.
44. Kindleberger, Marshall Plan Days, 127; Apostolos Vetsopoulos, “The Economic
Dimensions of the Marshall Plan in Greece, 1947–1952” (Ph.D. diss., University College
London, 2002), 358.
45. Interview with MacDonald Salter, Price Papers, GCML; Richard Bissell Oral History
(July 1971), HSTL; Sulzberger, A Long Row of Candles, 577.
46. On the Grady-Nuveen Feud, see Vetsopoulos, “The Economic Dimensions of the
Marshall Plan in Greece,” 101, 114–26, 358. On the Dunn-Gervasi Tussle, see Milton Katz to
William C. Foster, April 24, 1951; Foster to Katz, May 1, 1951 (draft); Foster to Katz, May 2,
1951, Box 4, Folder 15, C. Tyler Wood Papers, GCML.
47. Hoffmann and Maier, eds., The Marshall Plan, 51; Averell Harriman Oral History
(1971); Richard Bissell Oral History (July 1971); Lincoln Gordon Oral History (July 22,
1975), 95–98, HSTL; Bissell, Reflections, 64; Hirschman, Crossing Boundaries, 33–44. GATT
was later renamed the World Trade Organization, or WTO.
48. Leffler, “The United States and the Strategic Dimensions of the Marshall Plan”;
Memorandum by Harriman, November 11, 1948, Box 272, Averell Harriman Papers, LC.
49. Interview with Walter C. McAdoo, Price Papers, GCML; Clarke to Price, September
21, 1954, Box 1, Price Papers, GCML; Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made
It Succeed, 372, 386 n. 27.
50. Knut Getz Wold Oral History (May 1964), 24; Erling Wikborg Oral History (May
1964), 30; Per Haekkerup Oral History (May 1964), 13, HSTL; Judt, Postwar, 79.
51. Leffler, “The United States and the Strategic Dimensions of the Marshall Plan,” 281.
52. Armand Clesse and Archie Epps, eds., Present at the Creation (New York, 1990),
111; Pronay and Wilson, eds., The Political Re-education of Germany and Her Allies After
World War II, 226; Sulzberger, A Long Row of Candles, 379. Christian Democrats did make
inroads into some working-class strongholds. CBS’s Chief European Correspondent covered
the April elections in Milan where one industrial suburb, referred to as “Little Stalingrad”
because of its “solid pro-Communist vote in the past,” turned dramatically away from the
151


Notes to pages 52–60
Left. In the Turin suburb of Fiat, de Gasperi’s party received a majority of the votes. See
Smith, The State of Europe, 203.
53. Pisani, The CIA and the Marshall Plan, 112.
54. Maier and Bischof, eds., The Marshall Plan and Germany, 220; James Lowenstein
to author, June 20, 2006. Lowenstein worked at OSR, Paris in 1950 and 1951; New York
Times, February 23, 1949, 1.
55. William H. McNeill, Greece: American Aid in Action, 1946–1956 (New York, 1957),
199–201.
56. David Ellwood, “The Limits of Americanization and the Emergence of an Alternative
Model,” in Kipping and Bjarnar, eds., The Americanisation of European Business, 149–66.
57. Ellwood, “You Too Can Be Like Us”; Pronay and Wilson, The Political Re-education
of Germany and Her Allies, 220.
58. Interviews with Helene Granby and Averell Harriman, Price Papers, GCML.
59. William F. Sanford, “The Marshall Plan: Origins and Implementation,” U.S.
Department of State Bulletin 82 (June 1982): 10; Richard Bissell, “Foreign Aid: What Sort?
How Much? How Long?” Foreign Affairs 31 (October 1952): 24; Jones, The Fifteen Weeks,
84.
60. Congressional Record (80th Cong., 1st Sess.), December 8, 1947, 11,150–56.
61. Interviews with John Lindeman, Shaw Livermore, Donald Stone, and Samuel van
Hyning, Price Papers, GCML.
62. Marianne De Bouzy Oral History, NSA, GWU.
63. Schlesinger, A Life in the Twentieth Century, 476.
Chapter IV:
Implementing the Marshall Plan
1. Paul R. Porter, “Greece’s Vital Role in The Triumph of the Democracies,” 170, in
Eugene T. Rossides, ed., The Truman Doctrine of Aid to Greece: A Fifty-Year Retrospective
(New York and Washington, D.C., 1998); James Warren Oral History, NSA, GWU; C. A.
Munkman, American Aid to Greece: A Report on the First Ten Years (New York, 1958), 275.
2. E. N. Holmgren to Harry Price, August 9, 1954, Box 2, Price Papers, GCML; John
Nuveen, “Answering the Greek Tragedians,” 1237; ECA Mission to Greece, Information
Division, “Morning Press Headlines,” August 3 and 18, 1948, Box 52, Folder 24, James A. Van
Fleet Papers, GCML. For AMAG’s organization and personnel, see George C. McGhee,
“Implementation of the Aid Program,” in Rossides, ed., The Truman Doctrine of Aid to
Greece, 64–65.
3. Constantinos Doxiadis Oral History (May 1964), HSTL.
4. Jones, The Fifteen Weeks, 73; Killick, The United States and European Recon-
struction, 130; Brice Mace to Harry Price, September 15, 1954, Box 2, Price Papers, GCML;
U.S. Mutual Security Agency (MSA), The Story of the American Marshall Plan in Greece
(Washington, D.C., 1950), 21.
5. Jones, The Fifteen Weeks, 68; Mee, The Marshall Plan, 16.
6. James C. Warren Oral History, NSA, GWU; John Nuveen to Paul Hoffman and Averell
Harriman, March 22, 1949, Box 271, Harriman Papers, LC; L. S. Stavrianos, Greece:
American Dilemma and Opportunity (Chicago, 1952), 4; Queen Frederica to George C.
Marshall, July 20, 1950, a copy in Box 51, Folder 11, Van Fleet Papers, GCML. Greece voted
in September 1946 to retain its king and queen.
152


Notes to pages 61–69
7. MSA, The Story of the American Marshall Plan, 56; Paul R. Porter Oral History
(November 1971), HSTL.
8. Mace to Price, September 15, 1954, Box 2, Price Papers, GCML; interviews with Brice
Mace and Walter Packard, Price Papers, GCML; MSA, The Story of the American Marshall
Plan; Bickham Sweet-Escott, Greece: A Political and Economic Survey, 1939–1953 (London,
1954) 119 n. 2.
9. Brice to Price, September 15, 1954, Box 2, Price Papers, GCML; Constantinos
Doxiadis (May 1964) and Spyros Markezinis (July 1970) Oral Histories, HSTL; James Warren
Oral History, NSA, GWU; McNeill, Greece: American Aid in Action, 40; MSA, The Story of the
American Marshall Plan, 8–9; Vetsopoulos, “The Economic Dimensions of the Marshall Plan
in Greece, 1947–1952,” 185.
10. MSA, The Story of the American Marshall Plan, 7; John O. Iatrides, “The Doomed
Revolution: Communist Insurgency in Postwar Greece,” in Roy Licklider, ed., Stopping the
Killing (New York, 1993), 211–15, 219–20; Paul F. Braim, “General James A. Van Fleet and
the U.S. Military Mission to Greece,” in Rossides, ed., The Truman Doctrine of Aid to Greece,
117–27. In equating America’s postwar policy in Greece with the Soviet Union’s in East
Europe, Lawrence Wittner’s American Intervention in Greece, 1943–1949 (New York, 1982)
is too slanted to be a reliable source.
11. Stavrianos, Greece: American Dilemma and Opportunity, 198–204; McNeill,
Greece, 42–44; Iatrides, “The Doomed Revolution,” 215; Braim, “General James A. Van Fleet
and the U.S. Military Mission to Greece,” 126; Harriman to SecState, February 21, 1949, Box
271, Harriman Papers, LC; James C. Warren Oral History, NSA, GWU.
12. Alexander Papagos, “Guerrilla Warfare,” Foreign Affairs 30 (January 1952): 226–27;
James A. Van Fleet, “How We Won in Greece,” Balkan Studies (Thessaloniki) 8 (1967): 391;
Nuveen, “Answering the Greek Tragedians,” 1238; ECA Mission to Greece, Information Division,
“Morning Press Headlines,” August 20, 1948, Box 52, Folder 25, Van Fleet Papers, GCML.
13. Interviews with Robert Hirschberg, Carroll Hinman, and Paul A. Jenkins, Price
Papers, GCML; Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made It Succeed, 133; MSA,
The Story of the American Marshall Plan, 21–23.
14. Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA), European Recovery Program:
Greece, Country Study (Washington, D.C., 1949), 30; interviews with Hirschberg, Hinman,
and Jenkins, Price Papers, GCML; Paul R. Porter Oral History (November 1971) and
Markezinis Oral History (July 1970), HSTL; McNeill, Greece, 73; MSA, The Story of the
American Marshall Plan, 32; Vetsopoulos, “The Economic Dimensions of the Marshall Plan
in Greece,” 197–200, 264–65.
15. Mace to Price, September 15, 1954, Box 2, Price Papers, GCML; interview with Paul
A. Jenkins, Price Papers, GCML; McNeill, Greece, 182; MSA, The Story of the American
Marshall Plan, 68–69.
16. Dioxidis (May 1964) and Markezinis (July 1970) Oral Histories, HSTL; MSA, The
Story of the American Marshall Plan, 66; James C. Warren, “Origins of the ‘Greek Economic
Miracle:’ The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan Development and Stabilization Programs,”
86–87, in Rossides, ed., The Truman Doctrine of Aid to Greece. In 1948 Greece’s annual rice
production was just seven thousand tons. See ECA Mission to Greece, Information Division,
“Morning Press Headlines,” September 11, 1948, Box 52, Folder 25, Van Fleet Papers, GCML;
Vetsopoulos, “The Economic Dimensions of the Marshall Plan in Greece,” 344, 376.
17. Brice Mace to Harry Price, September 15, 1954, Box 2; interviews with John O.
Walker and Paul A. Jenkins, Price Papers, GCML; Harold F. Alderfer, I Like Greece (State
College, Pa., 1956), 79–83, 99–107; William M. Rountree Oral History (September 1989),
HSTL; McNeill, Greece, 74–75, 183; Munkman, American Aid to Greece, 253–54; MSA, The
Story of the American Marshall Plan, 57–58.
153


Notes to pages 69–75
18. Interview with Douglas A. Strachan, Price Papers, GCML; Paul R. Porter Oral History
(November 1971), HSTL; James C. Warren Oral History, NSA, GWU.
19. Interview with Paul A. Jenkins, Price Papers, GCML; ECA, European Recovery
Program: Greece, 33.
20. Leland Barrows Oral History (January 1971), HSTL; Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan
from Those Who Made It Succeed, 169; Warren, “Origins of the ‘Greek Economic Miracle,’ ”
100. For analysis of the successful 1952 Stabilization Program that involved curtailing the
investment program inherited from ECA, closing the balance of payments gap, and balancing
the government’s budget, consult Vetsopoulos, “The Economic Dimensions of the Marshall
Plan in Greece,” 286–324, 350.
21. Interview with Constantin Tsatsos, Price Papers, GCML; Munkman, American Aid to
Greece, 277.
22. Porter, “Greece’s Vital Role in the Triumph of the Democracies,” 229; interviews
with Paul R. Porter (November 15, 1952) and John O. Coppock, Price Papers, GCML; “Greek
Mission” and “Turkish Mission,” Box 9, Folder 7, William C. Foster Papers, GCML;
“Organization Directory,” June 21, 1949, Box 52, Folder 37; “Speech by John Nuveen, Jr., at
Meeting of ECA Mission Chiefs, February 16, 1949, a copy in Box 52, Folder 22, Van Fleet
Papers, GCML; “Summary and Recommendations” of Paul A. Porter Report, n.d., Box 52,
Folder 27, ibid.; “A Factual Summary Concerning the American Mission for Aid to Greece,”
June 15, 1948, Box 52, Folder 35, ibid. Marshall Plan aid to Greece in 1950 was an astonish-
ing 50% of the country’s GNP. See Judt, Postwar, 96.
23. Interviews with John O. Coppock and Constantin Tsatsos, Price Papers, GCML;
Markezinis Oral History (July 1970), HSTL; Nuveen, “Answering the Greek Tragedians,”
1236; Warren, “Origins of the ‘Greek Economic Miracle’,” 103.
24. Interview with Paul R. Porter, Price Papers, GCML; Howard K. Smith, The State of
Europe (New York, 1949), 225; Nuveen, “Answering the Greek Tragedians,” 1236;
Vetsopoulos, “The Economic Dimensions of the Marshall Plan in Greece,” 30, 131–32.
25. Interviews with Paul R. Porter and Constantin Tsatsos, Price Papers, GCML; McNeill,
Greece, 62–63; Queen Frederica to George C. Marshall, July 20, 1950, a copy in Box 51,
Folder 11, Van Fleet Papers, GCML. The whole Grady-Venizelos-Plastiras-Palace “mess” can
be best understood by first consulting, U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the
United States, 1950, vol. 5, “Greece” (Washington, D.C., 1978), 356, 426–31 (hereafter cited
as FRUS: 1950); and then Vetsopoulos, “The Economic Dimensions of the Marshall Plan in
Greece,” 169–75.
26 Clayton, “Is the Marshall Plan ‘Operation Rathole’?” 27; interview with John O.
Coppock, Price Papers, GCML; Markezinis Oral History (July 1970), HSTL; James C. Warren
to author, February 18, 2006; McNeill, Greece, 182.
27. James C. Warren Oral History, NSA, GWU; Alderfer, I Like Greece, 12, 80, 84, 198;
interviews with Constantin Tsatsos and Sefik Bilkur, Price Papers, GCML; Menges, ed., The
Marshall Plan from Those Who Made It Succeed, 148, 153.
28. Theodore H. White, “The Marshall Plan: Springtime in a New World,” in White, In
Search of History, 293; Vera Zamagni, “Betting on the Future: The Reconstruction of Italian
Industry, 1946–1952,” in Becker and Knipping, eds., Power in Europe?, 288; Economic
Cooperation Administration (ECA), Italy: A Country Study (Washington, D.C., 1949), 2;
Federico Romero, “Migration as an Issue in European Interdependence and Integration: The
Case of Italy,” in Alan S. Milward et al., eds., The Frontier of National Sovereignty: History and
Theory, 1945–1992 (London, 1994), 36. Luciano Segreto, “The Importance of the Foreign
Constraint: Debates About a New Social and Economic Order in Italy, 1945–1955,” in Dominik
Geppert, ed., The Postwar Challenge (London, 2005), 141–42. Segreto is my source for the 8%
figure. Segreto to author, June 20, 2006.
154


Notes to pages 75–81
29. Interview with Giovanni Malagodi (1952), Price Papers, GCML; Malagodi Oral
History (July 1970), HSTL; Eichengreen and Uzan, “The Marshall Plan,” 201; Marcello
DeCecco and Francesco Giavazzi, “Inflation and Stabilization in Italy: 1946–1951,” in
Rudiger Dornbusch et al., eds., Postwar Economic Reconstruction and Lessons for the East
Today (Cambridge, Mass., 1993), 60–61.
30. Harriman to Hoffman and Lovett, June 14, 1948, Box 270, Harriman Papers, LC.
31. ECA, Italy: A Country Study, 1–2, 4–5, 42–43; Memorandum of Conversation,
December 19, 1949, Box 271, Harriman Papers, LC; Giovanni Malagodi Oral History (July
1970), HSTL.
32. Pisani, The CIA and the Marshall Plan, 114–15; Mario Rossi, “ECA’s Blunders in
Italy,” The Nation 172 (April 7, 1951): 324; Romero, “Migration as an Issue in European
Interdependence and Integration: The Case of Italy,” 33–58.
33. Esposito, “Influencing Aid Recipients,” 68–92; Pisani, The CIA and the Marshall
Plan, 113–14; Carew, Labour Under the Marshall Plan, 95–96.
34. Current Biography, April 1960, 24–26; Memorandum of Conversation, February 8,
1950, Box 271, Harriman Papers, LC; Ellwood, “From ‘Re-education’ to the Selling of the
Marshall Plan in Italy,” in Pronay and Wilson, eds., The Political Re-education of Germany
and Her Allies After World War II, 228–29; David Ellwood, “The 1948 Elections in Italy: A
Cold War Propaganda Battle,” Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 13 (1993):
26; Smith, The State of Europe, 204.
35. Ellwood, “From ‘Re-education’ to the Selling of the Marshall Plan in Italy,” 230;
Ellwood, “E.R.P. Propaganda in Italy: Its History and Impact in an Official Survey,” 274–302,
in Ekkehart Krippendorff, ed., The Role of the United States in the Reconstruction of Italy
and West Germany, 1943–1949 (Berlin, 1981); see also Film Details for Talking to the
Italians (b&w, 1950, OSR, Paris) in Marshall Plan Filmography at www.marshallfilms.org.
36. Ellwood, “From ‘Re-education to the Selling of the Marshall Plan in Italy,” 235;
Ellwood, “The Marshall Plan and the Politics of Growth,” in Stirk and Willis, eds., Shaping
Postwar Europe, 18–24; Ellwood, “You Too Can Be Like Us: Selling the Marshall Plan,”
33–39; Schain, ed., The Marshall Plan, 286–87.
37. Killick, The United States and European Reconstruction, 1945–1960, 118; interview
with Vincent Barnett, Price Papers, GCML; Rossi, “ECA’s Blunders in Italy,” 324.
38. Harriman to Forrestal, January 4, 1949, Box 271, Harriman Papers, LC; “Italian
Mission,” Box 9, Folder 7, William C. Foster Papers, GCML; Ronald L. Filippelli, American
Labor and Postwar Italy, 1943–1953 (Stanford, Calif., 1989), 110.
39. Carew, Labour Under the Marshall Plan, 102–3; interview with Thomas Lane, Price
Papers, GCML. Comprehensive treatments of the ECA’s rupture of the Italian labor move-
ment, with AFL and CIO assistance, are Filippelli, American Labor and Postwar Italy, and
Federico Romero, The United States and the European Trade Union Movement, 1944–1951
(Chapel Hill, N.C., 1992).
40. Carew, Labour Under the Marshall Plan, 104; interview with James Toughill, Price
Papers, GCML.
41. ECA, Italy: A Country Study, 31; Federico Romero, “When the Marshall Plan Fell
Short: Industrial Relations in Italy,” Paper Delivered at “The Marshall Plan and Its
Consequences” Conference, University of Leeds, England, May 23–24, 1997; Pisani, The CIA
and the Marshall Plan, 119; Carew, Labour Under the Marshall Plan, 212, 214; interview
with Thomas Lane, Price Papers, GCML.
42. Harriman to Hoffman and Lovett, June 14, 1948, Box 270, Harriman Papers, LC;
Killick, The United States and European Reconstruction, 1945–1960, 102; Esposito,
America’s Feeble Weapon, 125, 170.
155


Notes to pages 82–87
43. Memorandum of Conversation, Harriman, Walters, Tasca, and Senator Restagno,
February 8, 1950, Box 271, Harriman Papers, LC.
44. Banco di Roma, Review of the Economic Conditions in Italy: Ten Years of Italian
Economy, 1947–1956 (Rome, 1956), 91, 123, 126–27; Smith, The State of Europe, 213,
221–22; Judt, Postwar, 78; Charles S. Maier, “From Plan to Practice,” 43; Pier Paulo
D’Attorre, “The European Recovery Program in Italy: Research Problems,” 88–89, in
Krippendorff, ed., The Role of the United States in the Reconstruction of Italy and West
Germany.
45. Banco di Roma, Review of the Economic Conditions in Italy, 6, 37–39, 47, 214–15;
Luigi Barzini, The Italians (New York, 1964), 101; Judt, Postwar, 703, 755; Lincoln Gordon
Oral History (July 22, 1975), 121–24, HSTL; interview with Bartlett Harvey, Price Papers,
GCML.
46. Carew, Labour Under the Marshall Plan, 211; Segreto, “The Importance of the
Foreign Constraint,” in Geppert, ed., The Postwar Challenge, 144–46.
47. Pier Paulo D’Attorre, “Americanism and Anti-Americanism in Italy,” in Stirk and
Willis, eds., Shaping Postwar Europe, 43–52; Pier Paulo D’Attorre, “The European Recovery
Program in Italy: Research Problems,” in Krippendorff, ed., The Role of the United States in
the Reconstruction of Italy and West Germany, 80; Roy Palmer Domenico, “ ‘For the Cause
of Christ Here in Italy’: America’s Protestant Challenge in Italy and the Cultural Ambiguity of
the Cold War,” Diplomatic History 29 (September 2005): 625–54; Patrick McCarthy, “The
Church in Post-War Italy,” in Patrick McCarthy, Italy Since 1945 (New York, 2000), 136, 139,
142; Barzini, The Italians, 183; William L. Shirer, Midcentury Journey (New York, 1952),
106.
48. Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA), Turkey, A Country Study
(Washington, D.C., 1949), 21–23; Max W. Thornburg et al., Turkey: An Economic Appraisal
(New York, 1949), 27; George S. Harris, Troubled Alliance: Turkish-American Problems in
Historical Perspective, 1945–1971 (Washington, D.C., 1972), 24; Memorandum of
Conversation, Harriman and Sadak, February 1, 1950, Box 271, Harriman Papers, LC;
U.S.Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States: 1949, vol. 6, “Turkey”
(Washington, D.C., 1977), 1663 (hereafter cited as FRUS: 1949).
49. Harris, Troubled Alliance, 31; Sulzberger, A Long Row of Candles, 396.
50. Harris, Troubled Alliance, 33; FRUS: 1950, 5: 1318; Orren McJunkins to American
Embassy, Paris, August 16, 1950, Economic Cooperation Administration, Office of Chief of
Mission to Turkey, Subject Files–Central Files, Box 11, Record Group 469, National Archives
and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland (hereafter, cited as ECA, RG, and
NARA). Also consult “Statement of Mr. Russell H. Dorr . . . on 1949/50 Marshall Plan
Program,” n.d., and “Speech by Russell Dorr at Robert College, Istanbul,” November 19,
1949, RG 469, NARA. Examples of government criticism are Zorlu Press Conference, May 25,
1950, and Menderes interview, December 24, 1951, Box 40, RG 469, NARA. A representative
sample of unfavorable press treatment is Hürriyet, December 26, 1951. Other negative edito-
rial coverage of the Marshall Plan is in Box 37, RG 469, NARA. Among Marshall Plan recipi-
ents, only Ireland’s and Portugal’s loan-to-grant ratios surpassed Turkey’s. Ireland received
$164,000,000 in aid, of which 89% were loans, according to Bernadette Whelan, “Marshall
Plan Publicity and Propaganda in Italy and Ireland, 1947–1951,” Historical Journal of Film,
Radio and Television 23 (October 2003): 315. I have calculated the figure at 87%. See
Appendix D. That wartime neutrals were disqualified from grants during the first year of the
Marshall Plan is disclosed in Lincoln Gordon Oral History (July 22, 1975), 83, HSTL.
51. Russell Dorr to Foreign Minister Zorlu, December 19, 1951, ECA, Office of Chief of
Mission to Turkey, Subject Files–Central Files, Box 37, RG 469, NARA. Dorr repeated his
156


Notes to pages 88–94
charge of “belittlement” by prominent Turks in a letter to George McGhee, January 17, 1952,
Box 9, RG 469; Vatan (Istanbul), June 16, 1951, clipping in Box 37, RG 469, NARA.
52. Interview with Russell Dorr, Price Papers, GCML; ECA, Turkey, A Country Study, 3;
Harris, Troubled Alliance, 31–32; Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made It
Succeed, 335.
53. Interviews with Russell Dorr, Heyder Bey, Camal Bark, and Clifton Day, Price Papers,
GCML; Harris, Troubled Alliance, 33–34; Wadsworth to Secretary of State, July 25, 1949,
FRUS: 1949, 6: 1676; Harris, Troubled Alliance, 35.
54. Russell Dorr Press Conference, April 29, 1950, ECA, Office of Chief of Mission to
Turkey, Box 40, RG 469, NARA.
55. Interviews with Gideon Hadary and Russell Dorr, Price Papers, GCML; Harriman to
Hoffman and Lovett, January 6, 1949, Box 270, Harriman Papers, LC; Dorr, “Turkish Viability
After 1954,” May 2, 1952, RG 469, NARA; Turkey, Ministry of State, Quarterly Report on
Marshall Plan in Turkey: First Quarter, 1950 (Ankara, 1950), 12–13 (hereafter cited as
Quarterly Report: Jan./March 1950).
56. ECA, Turkey, A Country Study, 24; Thornburg, Turkey: An Economic Appraisal, 80,
222; Memorandum of Conversation, Harriman and Sadak, December 28, 1948, Box 271,
Harriman Papers, LC.
57. Interview with Dewain L. Delp, Price Papers, GCML; Harry S. Truman, “Radio and
Television Address to the American People on the Mutual Security Program,” March 6, 1952,
Public Papers of the Presidents: Harry S. Truman at www.trumanlibrary.org/publicpapers;
Elmer Starch, “The Future of the Great Plains Reappraised,” Journal of Farm Economics
31 (November 1949): 917–27. Biograpical information on Starch can be found in the Elmer
Starch Papers at the National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, Maryland. The collection sheds
no light on his years in Turkey.
58. Interview with George McGhee, Price Papers, GCML.
59. Mace to Price, September 15, 1954, Box 2, Price Papers, GCML; Memorandum, Hugh
Richwine to R. H. Allen, n.d; F. M. Coray to R. H. Allen, June 9, 1952, ECA, Office of Chief of
Mission to Turkey, Box 2, RG 469, NARA; Thornburg, Turkey, 222; International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development, The Economy of Turkey: An Analysis and Recom-
mendations for a Development Program (Baltimore, Md., 1951), 18, 73 (hereafter cited as
World Bank, Report on Turkey [1951]).
60. Interviews with Dewain Delp, Russell Dorr, and Ahmet Yalman, Price Papers, GCML;
Thornburg, Turkey, 82; World Bank, Report on Turkey (1951), 125.
61. Turkey, Quarterly Report: Jan./March 1950, 9; ECA, Turkey, A Country Study,
29–30; Thornburg, Turkey, 96, 108, 111; World Bank, Report on Turkey (1951), 102; Dorr to
Robert Huse, December 2, 1949, ECA, Office of Chief of Mission to Turkey, Box 27, RG 469,
NARA; Memorandum of Conversation, Harriman and Sadak, December 29, 1948; Harriman,
Hoffman, and Sadak, February 1, 1950, Box 271, Harriman Papers, LC.
62. Russell Dorr to C. W. Jeffers, August 7, 1950, Box 27; Russell Dorr, “Turkish Viability
after 1954,” May 2, 1952, Box 12, both in ECA, Office of Chief of Mission to Turkey, RG 469,
NARA; Turkey, Quarterly Report: Jan./March 1950, 25; Winks, The Marshall Plan and the
American Economy, 42–43; Donovan, The Second Victory, 97; Thornburg, Turkey, 136;
World Bank, Report on Turkey (1951), 111, 143. For more technical details on Zonguldak
Project, see Box 29, RG 469, NARA.
63. Harriman to McCloy, September 17, 1948, Box 267; Harriman to Hoffman and
Lovett, January 6, 1949, Box 270, Harriman Papers, LC; FRUS: 1949, 5: 1639–40.
64. Memorandum of Conversation, February 4; June 7, 1950, FRUS: 1950, 5: 1229–30,
1264–69.
157


Notes to pages 94–101
65. Memorandum of Conversation, Harriman, Hoffman, and Sadak, February 1, 1950,
Box 271, Harriman Papers, LC; FRUS: 1949, 6: 1643–44; FRUS: 1950, 5: 1224–28;
Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1951 (Washington, D.C., 1982),
5: 1108–9 (hereafter cited as FRUS: 1951); “Progress Reports and Statistics,” Office of the
Secretary of Defense, May 29, 1950, Box 272, Harriman Papers, LC; interview with Russell
Dorr, Price Papers, GCML; Russell Dorr to George McGhee, January 17, 1952, ECA, Office of
Chief of Mission to Turkey, Box 9, RG 469, NARA.
66. Interview with Russell Dorr, Price Papers, GCML. Owner/editor of Vatan agreed with
Dorr. The 1950 election was “probably the first instance,” Ahmet Yalman wrote, “when
absolute power yielded, without violence, to the will of the people freely expressed by secret
ballots.” Ahmet Yalman, Turkey in My Time (Norman, Okla., 1956), 239.
67. Interviews with Leon Dayton, Fuat Koprulu, Thomas Flanagan, and Lawrence Hall,
Price Papers, GCML; FRUS: 1950, 5: 1262–63.
68. Interviews with Russell Dorr and Bulent Yazici, Price Papers, GCML; Russell Dorr,
“Turkish Viability after 1954,” May 2, 1952, Box 12, RG 469, NARA.
69. Interview with Irene Walker, Price Papers, GCML.
70. Interview with Sefik Bilkur, Price Papers, GCML; Sulzberger, A Long Row of
Candles, 512.
71. Michael J. Hogan, “European Integration and German Reintegration: Marshall
Planners and the Search for Recovery and Security in Western Europe,” 119, in Maier and
Bischof, eds., The Marshall Plan and Germany.
72. Maier and Bischof, eds., The Marshall Plan and Germany, 7; Herbert C. Mayer,
German Recovery and the Marshall Plan, 1948–1952 (New York, 1969), 9; Manfred Knapp,
“US Economic Aid and the Reconstruction of West Germany,” 41, in Krippendorff, ed., The
Role of the United States in the Reconstruction of Italy and West Germany.
73. Herbert Giersch et al., “Openness, Wage Restraint, and Macroeconomic Stability:
West Germany’s Road to Prosperity, 1948–1959,” 20, in Dornbusch et al., eds., Postwar
Economic Reconstruction and Lessons for the East Today.
74. Milton Katz Oral History (July 1975); Lincoln Gordon Oral History (July 22, 1975),
164–65, HSTL.
75. Lucius Clay Oral History (July 1974), HSTL; Smith, The State of Europe, 127; Gerd
Hardach, “The Marshall Plan in Germany, 1948–1952,” Journal of European Economic
History 16 (1987): 443.
76. Lucius Clay Oral History (July 1974), HSTL; Alexander Cairncross, “The Marshall
Plan,” paper delivered at “The Marshall Plan and Its Consequences” Conference, University
of Leeds, England, May 23–24, 1997.
77. Lucius Clay Oral History (July 1974), HSTL; Kindleberger, Marshall Plan Days, 37.
78. Gustav Sonnenhol Oral History (May 1964), HSTL; interview with Hans W. Buttner,
Price Papers, GCML; Boris Shishkin to Harriman, June 13, 1949, with attachment
“Roundtable Discussion Between Military Government Officials and Wuerttemberg-Baden
Trade Union Representatives, May 17, 1949,” Box 271, Harriman Papers, LC. On currency
reform, a classic is “Currency and Economic Reform, West Germany after World War II: A
Symposium,” edited by Rudolf Richter in Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Staatswissenschaft 135
(September 1979): 297–373.
79. Giersch, “Openness, Wage Restraint, and Macroeconomic Stability,” 2–3; Alan
Kramer, The West German Economy, 1945–1955 (New York, 1991), 134–35; Herman Abs,
“Germany and the Marshall Plan,” in Clesse and Epps, eds., Present at the Creation, 93;
Killick, The United States and European Reconstruction, 1945–1960, 117.
158


Notes to pages 101–109
80. Hardach, “The Marshall Plan in Germany,” 456; Holger C. Wolf, “Post-War Germany
in the European Context: Domestic and External Determinants of Growth,” 323–24, in
Eichengreen, ed., Europe’s Postwar Recovery.
81. Mayer, German Recovery and the Marshall Plan, 99; Holger C. Wolf, “The Lucky
Miracle: Germany, 1945–1951,” in Dornbusch et al., eds., Postwar Economic Reconstruction
and Lessons for the East Today, 45, 47; Wolf, “Post-War Germany in the European Context,”
330–36.
82. Lucius Clay Oral History (July 1974), HSTL; Shirer, Midcentury Journey, 22.
83. Helge Berger and Albrecht Ritschl, “Germany and the Political Economy of the
Marshall Plan, 1947–52: A Re-revisionist View,” in Eichengreen, ed., Europe’s Postwar
Recovery, 220–21; Ralph Willett, The Americanization of Germany, 1945–1949 (London,
1989), 13–14; Kunz, “The Marshall Plan Reconsidered,” 168–69; Wolf, “Post-War Germany in
the European Context,” 340–41; Wolf, “The Lucky Miracle,” 47–48; Giersch et al.,
“Openness, Wage Restraint, and Macroeconomic Stability,” 8–12.
84. Hans-Georg Sachs Oral History (May 1964), HSTL.
85. Milton Katz Oral History (July 1975), HSTL; interview with Martin Tank, Price
Papers, GCML; Everett Bellows Oral History, FAOHP, Georgetown University; Mayer, German
Recovery and the Marshall Plan, 24; Memorandum of Discussion, Royall and Foster,
December 31, 1948, Box 271, Harriman Papers, LC; Thomas Schwartz, “European
Integration and the ‘Special Relationship’: Implementing the Marshall Plan in the Federal
Republic,” in Maier and Bischof, eds., The Marshall Plan and Germany, 177.
86. Clay to Harriman, August 21, 1948, Box 271, Harriman Papers, LC; Lincoln Gordon
Oral History (July 22, 1975), 164–65, HSTL; Jaques J. Reinstein, “Germany: Solving
Problems,” in Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from Those Who Made It Succeed, 183;
Schwartz, “European Integration and the ‘Special Relationship,’ ” 175–76.
87. Harriman to Clay, January 11, 1949; Clay to Harriman, January 12, 1949, Box 271,
Harriman Papers, LC; Schwartz, “European Integration and the ‘Special Relationship,’ ” 174.
88. Interview with Martin Tank, Price Papers, GCML; Memorandum of Discussion, Royal
and Foster, December 31, 1948; Harriman to SecState, December 22, 1948, Box 271,
Harriman Papers, LC.
89. Harriman to Lovett, December 22, 1948, Box 271, Harriman Papers, LC; Schwartz,
“European Integration and the ‘Special Relationship,’ ” 183; Mayer, German Recovery and
the Marshall Plan, 62; Hardach, “The Marshall Plan in Germany,” 474; Giersch, “Openness,
Wage Restraint, and Macroeconomic Stability,” 7–9; Wolf, “The Lucky Miracle,” 42.
90. Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA), Western Germany, Country Study
(Washington, D.C., 1949), 1.
91. Memorandum of Conversation, Harriman and Erhard, November 11, 1949, Box 271,
Harriman Papers, LC; Berger and Ritschl, “Germany and the Political Economy of the
Marshall Plan,” 214, 229, 232, 240; Hardach, “The Marshall Plan in Germany,” 435.
92. ECA, Western Germany, Country Study, 45; interview with Karl Albrecht and oth-
ers, December 3, 1952, Price Papers, GCML; interview with Carl Bode, Price Papers, GCML;
Hardach, “The Marshall Plan in Germany,” 447, 455; Mayer, German Recovery and the
Marshall Plan, 34, 44, 98; Berger and Ritschl, “Germany and the Political Economy of the
Marshall Plan,” 206.
93. Memorandum for Harriman from Walters, January 31, 1950, Box 271, Harriman
Papers, LC.
94. Mayer, German Recovery and the Marshall Plan, 77, 90–93; Killick, The United
States and European Reconstruction, 1945–1960, 102; Price, The Marshall Plan and Its
159


Notes to pages 109–117
Meaning, 264; interview with Karl Albrecht, December 3, 1952, Box 4, Price Papers, GCML;
ECA, Western Germany, Country Study, 4, 12, 19, 60; Abs, “Germany and the Marshall
Plan,” in Clesse and Epps, eds., Present at the Creation, 97.
95. Berger and Ritschl, “Germany and the Political Economy of the Marshall Plan,” 199;
Wolf, “Post-War Germany in the European Context,” 341–42.
96. Interview with Franz Blücher, Price Papers, GCML.
97. Gustav Sonnenhol (May 1964) and Konrad Adenauer (June 1964) Oral Histories,
HSTL; interview with Karl Albrecht and others, December 3, 1952, Price Papers, GCML.
98. Kunz, “The Marshall Plan Reconsidered,” 168–69; Berger and Ritschl, “Germany
and the Political Economy of the Marshall Plan,” 200; Wolf, “Post-War Germany in the
European Context,” 342.
Chapter V:
An Unusable Marshall Plan?
1. Smith, The State of Europe, 354.
2. Whelan, “Marshall Plan Publicity and Propaganda in Italy and Ireland, 1947–1951,”
313; Ellwood, “The 1948 Elections in Italy: A Cold War Propaganda Battle,” 24–26; Patrick
McCarthy, “The Church in Post-War Italy,” in McCarthy, ed., Italy Since 1945, 133–41;
Smith, The State of Europe, 204–5; Judt, Postwar, 228.
3. Anna J. Merritt and Richard L. Merritt, eds., Public Opinion in Occupied Germany:
The OMGUS Surveys, 1945–1949 (Urbana, Ill., 1970), 26–29, 248–49, 263–64, 270, 297;
Anna J. Merritt and Richard L. Merritt, eds., Public Opinion in Semisovereign Germany: The
HICOG Surveys, 1949–1955 (Urbana, Ill., 1980), 66–68, 85; Judt, Postwar, 128; Hoffman,
Peace Can Be Won, 27.
4. On the impact of the Korean War, see Holger C. Wolf’s “The Lucky Miracle,” 29–56,
“Postwar Germany in the European Context,” 339–41, 344; and Judt, Postwar, 151–53, 159.
The conventional wisdom represented by Wolf has its detractors. In Peter Temin’s view,
aggregate trade data refutes the theory of “Koreaboom,” which he calls “mythical.” See Peter
Temin, “The ‘Koreaboom’ in West Germany: Fact or Fiction?” Economic History Review 48
(1995): 737–53. On the Berlin Airlift, consult Berger and Ritschl, “Germany and the Political
Economy of the Marshall Plan, 1947–1952,” 220–21. Red Army misconduct and mistreat-
ment of locals in Austria and the Soviet zone of occupation in Germany, including indiscrim-
inate dismantling of industrial plant, also provoked great sympathy for the Marshall Planners
and receptivity to their particular gospel of reconstruction.
5. Baron Jean-Charles Snoy Oral History (May 1964) and Erik Von Sydow Oral History
(July 1970), HSTL. The head of ECA’s Payments Section and Trade and Payments Division in
Paris graded as “first rate” his European counterparts: “The Europeans we had to deal with
were, generally speaking, I must say, of a very high quality. I was amazed at the expertise the
Europeans had,” particularly an “imaginative, competent, broad-minded” Robert Marjolin.
See Hubert F. Havlik Oral History (June 1973), 161, 163–64, HSTL. Marjolin was also “high-
ly regarded” by Norwegian officials. See Knut Getz Wold Oral History (May 1964), 39, HSTL.
6. Harriman to Lewis Douglas and Thomas Finletter, July 17, 1948, Box 272, Harriman
Papers, LC. A short but revealing feature on Marjolin is in Time 53 (January 24, 1949): 21–22.
7. Ernst van der Beugel Oral History (June 1964), HSTL.
8. Robert Marjolin Oral Histories (May 1964 and July 1971), HSTL; Marjolin, Architect
of European Unity, xi, 25–27, 35–43, 116–19, 143–58, 175–81; Hirschman, Crossing
Boundaries, 34; Eric Roll, Crowded Hours (London, 1985), 73; Gordon, “Recollections of a
160


Notes to pages 118–133
Marshall Planner,” 241. In 1946 Monnet was put in charge of the “Commissariat du Plan, de
Modernisation et d’Equipement.”
9. Foreign Affairs 76 (May-June 1997): 210, 218; Menges, ed., The Marshall Plan from
Those Who Made It Succeed, 185, 305; Bissell, Reflections, 30–31; Clesse and Epps, eds.,
Present at the Creation, x–xi; Hoffmann and Maier, eds., The Marshall Plan: A Retrospective,
89, 94; Hogan, The Marshall Plan, 443.
10. Bissell, Reflections, 30.
11. Foreign Affairs 76 (May-June 1997): 210; Bissell, Reflections, 71–72; C. Tyler Wood
Oral History, Box 36, Folder 12, C. Tyler Wood Papers, GCML; George F. Kennan, Memoirs
(1925–1950) (Boston, Mass., 1967), 370–71.
12. Schain, ed., The Marshall Plan, 131–41.
13. McGlade, “Confronting the Marshall Plan,” 172; McGlade, “From Business Reform
Programme to Production Drive,” 18–34; McGlade, “A Single Path for European Recovery?,”
192–95; McGlade, “Whose Plan Anyway? An Examination of Marshall Plan Leadership in the
United States and Western Europe,” paper delivered at “The Marshall Plan and Its
Consequences” Conference, University of Leeds, England, May 23–24, 1997; Sanford, “The
Marshall Plan,” 12.
14. Sanford, “The Marshall Plan,” 12–14; Thomas and Isaacson, The Wise Men, 444;
Bonds, Bipartisan Strategy, 132, 142 n. 27.
15. Robert Marjolin Oral History (May 1964), HSTL; Knut Getz Wold Oral History (May
1964), 34–36, HSTL.
16. Walter J. Levy, Oil Strategy and Politics, 1941–1981 (Boulder, Colo., 1982), 64.
17. David S. Painter, “Oil and the Marshall Plan,” Business History Review 58 (Autumn
1984): 359–83; Gordon, “ERP in Operation,” 139; Daniel Yergin, The Prize: The Epic Quest
for Oil, Money, and Power (New York, 1991), 424, 459; Marjolin, Architect of European
Unity, 394–96; Levy, “Petroleum Under the ECA Program,” 63–69, and “One Year of ECA’s
Oil Operations,” in Oil Strategy and Politics, 70–76. For more on Walter Levy, consult
Charles Kindleberger Oral History (July 1973), 15–16, HSTL.
Chapter VI.
A Usable Marshall Plan
1. Jules Moch Oral History (April 1970), 6–10, HSTL.
2. Hoffmann and Maier, eds., The Marshall Plan: A Retrospective, 54–55; Reuss, When
Government Was Good, 30; Valentine, Trial Balance, 163–82.
3. Josef Joffe, Überpower: The Imperial Temptation of America (New York, 2006), 205.
4. Wilson, The Marshall Plan, 4; Agnew and Entrikin, eds., The Marshall Plan Today,
20; Reuss, When Government Was Good, 29.
5. Raucher, Paul G. Hoffman, 67.
6. Dirk Stikker Oral History (April 23, 1964), 4, HSTL; Menges, ed. The Marshall Plan
from Those Who Made It Succeed, 169; Marjolin, Architect of European Unity, 180; Hoffman,
Peace Can Be Won, 42; Valentine, Trial Balance, 164, 169, 171, 167.
7. Joffe, Überpower, 147–61, 226, 237, 240; Sulzberger, A Long Row of Candles, 487.
8. Donovan, The Second Victory, 6; Hoffmann and Maier, eds., The Marshall Plan: A
Retrospective, 55; Judt, Postwar, 70, 97; Sulzberger, A Long Row of Candles, 373, 682.
9. Hoffman, Peace Can Be Won, 90–105.
161


Notes to pages 134–135
10. Marjolin, Architect of European Unity, 175.
11. See Gordon S. Wood, Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founding Fathers
Different (New York, 2006); and Jon Meacham, “Original Intent,” New York Times Book
Review, June 25, 2006, 19.
12. Marshall to Ulio, January 18, 1941, in Larry I. Bland et al., eds., The Papers of
George Catlett Marshall (Baltimore, Md., 1986), 2: 394–95.
13. Cray, General of the Army, 621.
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